Chapter 13- Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, And Spinal Reflexes Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and physiology > Chapter 13- Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, And Spinal Reflexes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13- Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, And Spinal Reflexes Deck (48)
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The central nervous system consists of the...

Brain and spinal cord

1

In the peripheral nervous system,...

1. Neuron cell bodies are located in ganglia
2. Spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord
3. Cranial nerves connect to the brain

2

The axons of motor neurons that extend into the periphery to control somatic and visceral effectors are contained in a pair of...

Ventral roots

3

The regions of the spinal cord that are based on the regions of the vertebral column are...

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral

4

The cervical enlargement of the spinal cord supplies nerves to the...

Shoulder girdle and arms

5

If cerebrospinal fluid was withdrawn during a spinal tap, a needle would be inserted into the...

Subarachnoid space

6

The white matter of the spinal cord contains...

Large numbers of myelinated and unmyelinated axons

7

The meninx that is firmly bound to neural tissue and deep to the other meninges is the...

Pia mater

8

The area of the spinal cord that surrounds the central canal and is dominated by the cell bodies of neurons and glial cells is the...

Gray matter

9

The posterior gray horns of the spinal cord contains...

Somatic and visceral sensory nuclei

10

The delicate connective tissue fibers that surround individual axons of spinal nerves comprise a layer called the...

Endoneurium

11

The branches of the cervical plexus innervate the muscles of the...

Neck and extend into the thoracic cavity to control the diaphragm

12

The brachial plexus innervates the...

Shoulder girdle and arm

13

Divergence is the "neural circuit" that permits...

The broad distribution of a specific input

14

When sensory information is relayed from one part of the brain to another, the pattern is called...

Serial processing

15

The final step involved in a neural reflex is...

A response by an effector

16

The goals of information processing during a neural reflex are selection of...

An appropriate motor response and the activation of specific motor neurons

17

Reflexes arcs in which sensory stimulus and the motor response occur on the same side of the body are...

Ipsilateral

18

The basic motor patterns of innate reflexes are...

Genetically programmed

19

A professional skier making a rapid, automatic adjustment in body position while racing is an example of an.........reflex.

Acquired

20

When a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron, which itself serves as the processing center, the reflex is called an.........reflex.

Monosynaptic

21

The sensory receptors in the stretch Reflex are the...

Muscle spindles

22

When one set of motor neurons is stimulated, those controlling antagonistic muscles are inhibited. This statement illustrates the principle of...

Reciprocal inhibition

23

All polysynaptic reflexes share the same basic characteristics, which include...

1. They involve pools of interneurons
2. They are intersegmental in distribution
3. They involve reciprocal inhibition

24

As descending inhibitory synapses develop,...

The Babinski response disappears

25

The highest level of motor control involves a series of interactions that occur...

In centers in the brain that can modulate or build upon reflexive motor patterns

26

The designation C3 relative to the spinal cord refers to the third...

Cervical segment

27

The specialized membranes that provide physical stability and shock absorption are the...

Spinal meninges

28

Spinal nerves are classified as mixed nerves because they contain...

Both sensory and motor fibers

29

The three meningeal layers of the spinal cord are the...

Dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater

30

The cauda equina is a complex of the spinal cord that includes the...

Filum terminale and the ventral and dorsal roots caudal to the conus medullaris

31

The epidural space is an area that contains...

Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue

32

In the spinal cord, the cerebrospinal fluid is found within the...

Central canal and subarachnoid space

33

The meninx in contact with the brain and the spinal cord is the...

Pia mater

34

The division between the left and right sides of the spinal cord is the...

Anterior median fissure and the posterior median sulcus

35

The axons in the white matter of the spinal cord that carry sensory information toward the brain are organized into...

Ascending tracts

36

In reference to the vertebral column, C2 refers to the cervical nerve that...

Precedes vertebra C2

37

The white ramus is the branch of a spinal nerve that consists of...

Myelinated preganglionic axons

38

Unmyelinated fibers that innervate glands and smooth muscles in the body wallow limbs form the...

Gray ramus

39

The lumbar and sacral plexuses that supply the pelvic girdle and the leg include spinal nerves...

T12-S4

40

The subarachnoid space contains...

Cerebrospinal fluid

41

Reflexive removal of a hand from a hot stove and blinking when the eyelashes are touched are examples of...........reflexes.

Innate

42

The most complicated responses are produced by polysynaptic responses because...

The interneurons can control several different muscle groups

43

The duration of synaptic delay is...

Proportional to the number of synapses involved

44

The reflexive contraction of the quadriceps muscle in response to a distortion of stretch receptors is the............reflex.

Patellar

45

Examples of somatic reflexes include...

Stretch, crossed extensor, corneal, and gag reflexes

46

In this type of neuronal processing, many responses to a single stimulus can occur simultaneously.

Parallel

47

In an adult, CNS injury is suspected if there is an...

Positive Babinski reflex