Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation Deck (71)
1

the layer of vascular tissue that consists of an endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue dominated by elastic fibers is the...

tunica intima

2

smooth muscle fibers in arteries and veins are found in the...

tunica media

3

one of the major characteristics of the arteries supplying peripheral tissues is that they are...

muscular

4

the only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstital fluids are...

capillaries

5

one of the primary characteristics of continous capillaries is that they prevent...

the loss of blood cells and plasma proteins

6

the unidirectional flow of blood in venules and medium sized veins is maintained by...

the presence of valves

7

the specialized arteries that are able to tolerate the pressure shock produced each time ventricular systole occurs and blood leaves the heart are...

elastic arteries

8

where does the greatest drop in blood pressure occur?

arterioles

9

if the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg, the mean arterial pressure(MAP) is...

100 mm Hg

10

the distinctive sounds of Korotkoff heard when taking the blood pressure are produced by...

turbulences as blood flows past the constricted portion of the artery

11

the phenomenon that helps maintain blood flow along the arterial network while the left ventricle is in diastole is...

elastic rebound

12

the most important factor in vascular resistance is...

friction between blood and the vessel walls

13

two factors that assist the low venous pressures in propelling blood toward the heart are...

elastic rebound and mean arterial pressure

14

what correctly identifies all the factors that would increase blood pressure?

increasing CO, decreasing SV, increasing VR, decreasing PR, increasing BV

15

the two major factors affecting blood flow rates are...

pressure and resistance

16

for circulation to occur, the circulatory pressure must be sufficient to overcome the...

total peripheral resistance

17

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood volume and pressure by...

1. blocking release of ADH
2. stimulating peripheral vasodiliation
3. increased water loss through the kidneys

18

the circulatory regulatory mechanisms that can assist in short term and long term adjustments...

endocrine responses

19

the regulatory mechanism that cause immediate, localized homeostatic adjustments is...

autoregulation

20

the central regulation of cardiac output primarily involves the activities of the...

autonomic nervous system

21

an increase in cardiac output normally occurs during...

widespread sympathetic stimulation

22

stimulation of the vasomotor center in the medulla causes __________, and inhibition of the vasomotor center causes __________.

vasoconstriction; vasodilation

23

hormonal regulation by ADH, epinephrine, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine results in...

increasing peripheral vasoconstriction

24

the three primary interrelated changes that occur as exercise begins are...

increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output

25

the only area of the body where the blood supply is unaffected while exercising at maximum levels is the...

brain

26

other than near the heart, the peripheral distributions of arteries and veins on the left and right sides are...

generally identical on both sides

27

as the external iliac artery leaves the body trunk and enters the lower limb, it becomes the...

femoral artery

28

the link between adjacent arteries or veins that reduce the impact of a temporary or permanent occlusion of a single blood vessel is...

anastomosis

29

the four large blood vessels, two from each lung, that empty into the left atrium, completing the pulmonary circuit, are the...

pulmonary veins

30

the blood vessels that provide blood to capillary networks that surround the alveoli in the lungs are...

pulmonary arteries

31

the three elastic arteries that originate along the aortic arch and deliver blood to the head, neck, shoulders, and arms are the...

brachiophalic, L common carotid, and left subclavian

32

the large blood vessel that collects most of the venous blood from organs below the diaphragm is the...

inferior vena cava

33

the three blood vessels that provide blood to all of the digestive organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are the...

celiac trunk and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries

34

the diaphragm divides the descending aorta into...

superior thoracic aorta and inferior abdominal aorta

35

the three branches that originate from the celiac trunk are the...

L gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries

36

except for the cardiac veins, all of the body's systemic veins drain into either the...

superior or inferior vena cava

37

blood from the tissues and organs of the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs is delivered to the...

superior vena cava

38

blood from the lower limbs, the pelvis, and the lower abdomen is delivered to the...

external iliac veins

39

blood leaving the capillaries supplied by the celiac trunk and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries flows into the...

hepatic portal system

40

the nutritional and respiratory needs of a fetus are provided by...

diffusion across the placenta

41

in early fetal life, the foramen ovale allows blood to flow freely from the...

right atrium to the left atrium

42

in the adult, the ductus arteriosus persists as a fibrous cord called the...

ligamentum arteriosum

43

a few seconds after birth, rising O2 levels stimulate the constriction of the ductus arteriosus, isolating the...

pulmonary and aortic trunks

44

the primary effect of a decrease in the hematocrit of elderly individuals is...

a lowering of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

45

in the heart, age related progressive atherosclerosis causes...

restricted coronary circulation

46

the systems responsible for modifying heart rate and regulating blood pressure are the...

nervous and endocrine system

47

in travleing from the heart to the peripheral capillaries, blood passes through...

elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles

48

in general terms, blood flow (F) is directly proportional to...

pressure

49

the goal of cardiovascular regulation is...

maintenence of adequate blood flow through peripheral tissues and organs

50

along the length of a typical capillary, blood pressure gradually falls from about...

35 to 18 mm Hg

51

where would you find fenestrated capillaries?

1. filtration areas of the kidneys
2. absorptive areas of the intestine
3. endocrine glands

52

the average pressure in arteries is approximately...

100 mm Hg

53

the effective pressure in the venous system is roughly...

18 mm Hg

54

net hydrostatic pressure forces water ______ a capillary; net osmotic pressure forces water _________ a capillary.

out of; into

55

the condition that has the greatest influence on the level of peripheral resistance is doubling the...

diameter of a blood vessel

56

the relationship F=P/R means that the flow is...

directly proportional to the pressure gradient, and inversely proportional to the resistance

57

to increase blood flow to an adjacent capillary. the local controls that operate are...

decreasing O2, increasing CO2, and decreasing pH

58

the adrenergic fibers innervating arterioles are ________ fibers that release ________ and cause ________.

sympathetic; norepinephrine; vasoconstricition

59

two arteries formed by the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic artery are the...

common carotid and subclavian

60

the artery that serves the posterior thigh is the..

deep femoral

61

a major differences between the arterial and venous systems is that...

there is a dual venous drainage in the limbs

62

the large vein that drains the thorax is the...

azygos vein

63

the veins that drain the head, neck, and upper extremities are the...

brachiocephalics

64

the veins that drain venous blood from the legs and the pelvis are the...

common iliacs

65

the vein that drains the knee region of the body is the...

popliteal

66

the large artery that serves the brain is the...

internal carotid

67

the artery that links the subclavian and brachial arteries is the...

axillary

68

the three arterial branches of the celiac trunk are the...

L gastric, splenic, and common hepatic

69

the artery that supplies most of the small intestine and the first half of the large intestine is the...

superior mesenteric

70

the artery that supplies the pelvic organs is the...

internal iliac artery

71

the branches of the popliteal artery are the...

anterior and posterior tibial arteries