Flashcards in Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation Deck (71)
the layer of vascular tissue that consists of an endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue dominated by elastic fibers is the...
smooth muscle fibers in arteries and veins are found in the...
one of the major characteristics of the arteries supplying peripheral tissues is that they are...
the only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstital fluids are...
one of the primary characteristics of continous capillaries is that they prevent...
the loss of blood cells and plasma proteins
the unidirectional flow of blood in venules and medium sized veins is maintained by...
the presence of valves
the specialized arteries that are able to tolerate the pressure shock produced each time ventricular systole occurs and blood leaves the heart are...
where does the greatest drop in blood pressure occur?
if the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg, the mean arterial pressure(MAP) is...
100 mm Hg
the distinctive sounds of Korotkoff heard when taking the blood pressure are produced by...
turbulences as blood flows past the constricted portion of the artery
the phenomenon that helps maintain blood flow along the arterial network while the left ventricle is in diastole is...
the most important factor in vascular resistance is...
friction between blood and the vessel walls
two factors that assist the low venous pressures in propelling blood toward the heart are...
elastic rebound and mean arterial pressure
what correctly identifies all the factors that would increase blood pressure?
increasing CO, decreasing SV, increasing VR, decreasing PR, increasing BV
the two major factors affecting blood flow rates are...
pressure and resistance
for circulation to occur, the circulatory pressure must be sufficient to overcome the...
total peripheral resistance
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood volume and pressure by...
1. blocking release of ADH
2. stimulating peripheral vasodiliation
3. increased water loss through the kidneys
the circulatory regulatory mechanisms that can assist in short term and long term adjustments...
the regulatory mechanism that cause immediate, localized homeostatic adjustments is...
the central regulation of cardiac output primarily involves the activities of the...
autonomic nervous system
an increase in cardiac output normally occurs during...
widespread sympathetic stimulation
stimulation of the vasomotor center in the medulla causes __________, and inhibition of the vasomotor center causes __________.
hormonal regulation by ADH, epinephrine, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine results in...
increasing peripheral vasoconstriction
the three primary interrelated changes that occur as exercise begins are...
increasing vasodilation, increasing venous return, and increasing cardiac output
the only area of the body where the blood supply is unaffected while exercising at maximum levels is the...
other than near the heart, the peripheral distributions of arteries and veins on the left and right sides are...
generally identical on both sides
as the external iliac artery leaves the body trunk and enters the lower limb, it becomes the...
the link between adjacent arteries or veins that reduce the impact of a temporary or permanent occlusion of a single blood vessel is...
the four large blood vessels, two from each lung, that empty into the left atrium, completing the pulmonary circuit, are the...
the blood vessels that provide blood to capillary networks that surround the alveoli in the lungs are...
the three elastic arteries that originate along the aortic arch and deliver blood to the head, neck, shoulders, and arms are the...
brachiophalic, L common carotid, and left subclavian
the large blood vessel that collects most of the venous blood from organs below the diaphragm is the...
inferior vena cava
the three blood vessels that provide blood to all of the digestive organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are the...
celiac trunk and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries
the diaphragm divides the descending aorta into...
superior thoracic aorta and inferior abdominal aorta
the three branches that originate from the celiac trunk are the...
L gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries
except for the cardiac veins, all of the body's systemic veins drain into either the...
superior or inferior vena cava
blood from the tissues and organs of the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs is delivered to the...
superior vena cava
blood from the lower limbs, the pelvis, and the lower abdomen is delivered to the...
external iliac veins
blood leaving the capillaries supplied by the celiac trunk and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries flows into the...
hepatic portal system
the nutritional and respiratory needs of a fetus are provided by...
diffusion across the placenta
in early fetal life, the foramen ovale allows blood to flow freely from the...
right atrium to the left atrium
in the adult, the ductus arteriosus persists as a fibrous cord called the...
a few seconds after birth, rising O2 levels stimulate the constriction of the ductus arteriosus, isolating the...
pulmonary and aortic trunks
the primary effect of a decrease in the hematocrit of elderly individuals is...
a lowering of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
in the heart, age related progressive atherosclerosis causes...
restricted coronary circulation
the systems responsible for modifying heart rate and regulating blood pressure are the...
nervous and endocrine system
in travleing from the heart to the peripheral capillaries, blood passes through...
elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles
in general terms, blood flow (F) is directly proportional to...
the goal of cardiovascular regulation is...
maintenence of adequate blood flow through peripheral tissues and organs
along the length of a typical capillary, blood pressure gradually falls from about...
35 to 18 mm Hg
where would you find fenestrated capillaries?
1. filtration areas of the kidneys
2. absorptive areas of the intestine
3. endocrine glands
the average pressure in arteries is approximately...
100 mm Hg
the effective pressure in the venous system is roughly...
18 mm Hg
net hydrostatic pressure forces water ______ a capillary; net osmotic pressure forces water _________ a capillary.
out of; into
the condition that has the greatest influence on the level of peripheral resistance is doubling the...
diameter of a blood vessel
the relationship F=P/R means that the flow is...
directly proportional to the pressure gradient, and inversely proportional to the resistance
to increase blood flow to an adjacent capillary. the local controls that operate are...
decreasing O2, increasing CO2, and decreasing pH
the adrenergic fibers innervating arterioles are ________ fibers that release ________ and cause ________.
sympathetic; norepinephrine; vasoconstricition
two arteries formed by the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic artery are the...
common carotid and subclavian
the artery that serves the posterior thigh is the..
a major differences between the arterial and venous systems is that...
there is a dual venous drainage in the limbs
the large vein that drains the thorax is the...
the veins that drain the head, neck, and upper extremities are the...
the veins that drain venous blood from the legs and the pelvis are the...
the vein that drains the knee region of the body is the...
the large artery that serves the brain is the...
the artery that links the subclavian and brachial arteries is the...
the three arterial branches of the celiac trunk are the...
L gastric, splenic, and common hepatic
the artery that supplies most of the small intestine and the first half of the large intestine is the...
the artery that supplies the pelvic organs is the...
internal iliac artery