Flashcards in Chapter 15- Neural Integration I Deck (49)
The primary sensory cortex of the cerebral hemispheres or areas of the cerebellar hemispheres receive.........information.
Visceral sensory information is distributed primarily to reflex centers in the...
Brain stem and diencephalon
The somatic nervous system consists of...
Motor neurons and pathways that control skeletal muscles
The somatic motor portion of the efferent division of the nervous system is responsible for control of...
Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, sensory information must be sent to the CNS in the form of...
Free nerve endings can be stimulated by many different stimuli cause they exhibit...
Little receptor specificity
The receptors that provide information about the intensity and rate if change of a stimulus are called...
Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity.
Nocicepters, common in the skin, joint capsules, and around the walls of blood vessels, are sensory receptors for...
The general sensory receptors that respond the physical distortion are the...
Thermoreceptors are phasic receptors because they are...
Very active when the temperature is changing
Tactile receptors provide sensations of...
Touch, pressure, and vibration
Pressure changes in the wall of a blood vessel are monitored by...
The pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations of arterial blood are monitored by...
The three major somatic sensory pathways are the...
Posterior column, spinothalamic, and spinocerebellar
The axons of the posterior column ascend within the...
Fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus
The spinothalamic pathway consists of...
Lateral and anterior tracts
Proprioceptive data from peripheral structures, visual information from the eyes, and equilibrium related sensations are processed and integrated in the...
The integrative activities preformed by neurons in the cerebellar cortex and basal nuclei are essential to the...
Precise control of voluntary and involuntary movements
The somatic nervous system issues somatic motor commands that direct the...
Control of skeletal muscles
The upper motor neuron of a somatic motor pathway has a cell body that lies in a...
CNS processing center
The three integrated pathways controlling conscious and subconscious motor commands in skeletal muscle are the...
Corticospinal, medial, and reticulospinal
The motor tracts in the spinal cord controlling subconscious regulation of balance and muscle tone are the............tracts
The background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities are controlled by...
The center of somatic motor control that plans and initiates voluntary motor activity is...
The center of somatic motor control that makes the movement efficient, smooth, and precisely controlled is the...
The center of somatic motor control that controls basic respiratory reflexes is the...
If a tract name begins with spino-,it must start in the...
Spinal cord and end in the brain, carrying sensory information
If the name of a tract ends in -spinal, it's axons must start in the...
Higher centers and end in the spinal cord, bearing motor commands
The posterior column pathway receives sensations associated with...
Highly localized fine touch, pressure, vibration, and position
In the thalamus, data arriving over the posterior column pathway are integrated, sorted, and projected to the...
Primary sensory cortex
If a sensation arrives at the wrong part of the sensory cortex, we will..
Reach an improper conclusion about the source of the stimulus
The presence of abnormal sensations such as the pins and needles sensation when an arm or leg "falls asleep" as a result of pressure on a peripheral nerve is called...
The spinothalamic pathway relays impulses associated with...
"Crude" sensations of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
The spinocerebellar pathway includes...
Anterior and posterior tracts
The spinocerebellar pathway carries information concerning the...
Position of muscles, tendons, and joints to the cerebellum
Somatic motor pathways always involve...
An upper and lower motor neuron
Voluntary and involuntary somatic motor commands issued by the brain reach peripheral targets by traveling over the...
Corticospinal, medial, and lateral pathways
The primary goal of the vestibular nuclei is the...
Maintenance of posture and balance
The reticulospinal tract is involved with regulation of...
Involuntary reflex activity and automatic functions
An individual whose primary motor cortex has been destroyed retains the ability to walk and maintain balance but the movements...
Lack precision and are awkward and poorly controlled
Basal nuclei create background patterns of movement by...
1. Modulation of upper motor neuron activity
2. Indirectly changing the sensitivity of pyramidal cells in the primary motor cortex
3. Altering the excitatory or inhibitory output of the reticulospinal tracts
When someone touches a hot stove, the rapid, automatic preprogrammed response that preserves homeostasis is provided by...
A spinal reflex
At the highest level of processing, the complex, variable, and voluntary motor patterns are dictated by the...
Changes in pressure or movement stimulate...
The CNS interprets the type of stimulus involved in a sensory transmission on the basis of the...
Labeled line over which it traveled
What sensory receptors adapt to repeated stimulation by sending fewer and fewer impulses, except those for...
Heat, light, touch
Receptors for the somatic senses are located in the...