Chapter 15- Neural Integration I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15- Neural Integration I Deck (49)
0

The primary sensory cortex of the cerebral hemispheres or areas of the cerebellar hemispheres receive.........information.

Somatic sensory

1

Visceral sensory information is distributed primarily to reflex centers in the...

Brain stem and diencephalon

2

The somatic nervous system consists of...

Motor neurons and pathways that control skeletal muscles

3

The somatic motor portion of the efferent division of the nervous system is responsible for control of...

Skeletal muscles

4

Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, sensory information must be sent to the CNS in the form of...

Action potentials

5

Free nerve endings can be stimulated by many different stimuli cause they exhibit...

Little receptor specificity

6

The receptors that provide information about the intensity and rate if change of a stimulus are called...

Tonic receptors

7

Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity.

True

8

Nocicepters, common in the skin, joint capsules, and around the walls of blood vessels, are sensory receptors for...

Pain

9

The general sensory receptors that respond the physical distortion are the...

Mechanoreceptors

10

Thermoreceptors are phasic receptors because they are...

Very active when the temperature is changing

11

Tactile receptors provide sensations of...

Touch, pressure, and vibration

12

Pressure changes in the wall of a blood vessel are monitored by...

Baroreceptors

13

The pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations of arterial blood are monitored by...

Chemoreceptors

14

The three major somatic sensory pathways are the...

Posterior column, spinothalamic, and spinocerebellar

15

The axons of the posterior column ascend within the...

Fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus

16

The spinothalamic pathway consists of...

Lateral and anterior tracts

17

Proprioceptive data from peripheral structures, visual information from the eyes, and equilibrium related sensations are processed and integrated in the...

Cerebellum

18

The integrative activities preformed by neurons in the cerebellar cortex and basal nuclei are essential to the...

Precise control of voluntary and involuntary movements

19

The somatic nervous system issues somatic motor commands that direct the...

Control of skeletal muscles

20

The upper motor neuron of a somatic motor pathway has a cell body that lies in a...

CNS processing center

21

The three integrated pathways controlling conscious and subconscious motor commands in skeletal muscle are the...

Corticospinal, medial, and reticulospinal

22

The motor tracts in the spinal cord controlling subconscious regulation of balance and muscle tone are the............tracts

Tectospinal

23

The background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities are controlled by...

Basal nuclei

24

The center of somatic motor control that plans and initiates voluntary motor activity is...

Hypothalamus

25

The center of somatic motor control that makes the movement efficient, smooth, and precisely controlled is the...

Cerebellum

26

The center of somatic motor control that controls basic respiratory reflexes is the...

Medulla oblongata

27

If a tract name begins with spino-,it must start in the...

Spinal cord and end in the brain, carrying sensory information

28

If the name of a tract ends in -spinal, it's axons must start in the...

Higher centers and end in the spinal cord, bearing motor commands

29

The posterior column pathway receives sensations associated with...

Highly localized fine touch, pressure, vibration, and position

30

In the thalamus, data arriving over the posterior column pathway are integrated, sorted, and projected to the...

Primary sensory cortex

31

If a sensation arrives at the wrong part of the sensory cortex, we will..

Reach an improper conclusion about the source of the stimulus

32

The presence of abnormal sensations such as the pins and needles sensation when an arm or leg "falls asleep" as a result of pressure on a peripheral nerve is called...

Parasthesia

33

The spinothalamic pathway relays impulses associated with...

"Crude" sensations of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

34

The spinocerebellar pathway includes...

Anterior and posterior tracts

35

The spinocerebellar pathway carries information concerning the...

Position of muscles, tendons, and joints to the cerebellum

36

Somatic motor pathways always involve...

An upper and lower motor neuron

37

Voluntary and involuntary somatic motor commands issued by the brain reach peripheral targets by traveling over the...

Corticospinal, medial, and lateral pathways

38

The primary goal of the vestibular nuclei is the...

Maintenance of posture and balance

39

The reticulospinal tract is involved with regulation of...

Involuntary reflex activity and automatic functions

40

An individual whose primary motor cortex has been destroyed retains the ability to walk and maintain balance but the movements...

Lack precision and are awkward and poorly controlled

41

Basal nuclei create background patterns of movement by...

1. Modulation of upper motor neuron activity
2. Indirectly changing the sensitivity of pyramidal cells in the primary motor cortex
3. Altering the excitatory or inhibitory output of the reticulospinal tracts

42

When someone touches a hot stove, the rapid, automatic preprogrammed response that preserves homeostasis is provided by...

A spinal reflex

43

At the highest level of processing, the complex, variable, and voluntary motor patterns are dictated by the...

Cerebral cortex

44

Changes in pressure or movement stimulate...

Mechanoreceptors

45

The CNS interprets the type of stimulus involved in a sensory transmission on the basis of the...

Labeled line over which it traveled

46

What sensory receptors adapt to repeated stimulation by sending fewer and fewer impulses, except those for...

Heat, light, touch

47

Receptors for the somatic senses are located in the...

1. Skin
2. Muscles
3. Joints

48

Tactile corpuscles and lamellated corpuscles are sensitive to...

Touch and pressure