Chapter 10- Muscle Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10- Muscle Tissue Deck (53)
0

Muscle tissue consists of cells that are highly specialized for the...

1. Excitability
2. Contraction
3. Maintain body temperature

1

The primary functions performed by skeletal muscles are to...

1. Produce skeletal movement
2. Guard entrances and exits
3. Maintain body temperature

2

Skeletal muscles move the body by...

Pulling on the bones of the skeleton

3

Skeletal muscles are often called voluntary muscles because...

They contract only when stimulated by motor neurons of the central nervous system

4

The three layers of connective tissue supporting each muscle are the...

Epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium

5

Nerves and blood vessels that supply the muscle fibers are contained within the connective tissues of the...

Endomysium and perimysium

6

The smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber is...

The sarcomere

7

The thin filaments consist of...

Pair of protein strands wound together to form chains of actin molecules

8

The thick filaments consist of...

Helical array of myosin molecules

9

The sliding filament theory explains that the physical change that takes place during contraction is the...

Thin filaments are sliding toward the center of the sarcomere alongside the thick filaments

10

Troponin and tropomyosin are two proteins that can prevent the contractile process by...

Covering the active site and blocking the actin-myosin interaction

11

The first step in excitation-contraction coupling is the...

Stimulation of the sarcolemma

12

Muscle relaxation begins with...

Breakdown of ACh by AChE

13

All of the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron constitute a...

Motor unit

14

The tension in a muscle fiber will vary depending on the...

1. Structure of individual sarcomeres
2. Initial length of muscle fibers
3. Number of cross bridge interactions within a muscle fiber

15

There is less precise control over leg muscles compared to the muscles of the eye because...

Many muscle fibers are controlled by a single motor neuron

16

Skeletal muscle fibers contract most forcefully when stimulated over a...

Narrow range of resting lengths

17

The amount of tension produced by a skeletal muscle is controlled by...

The total number of muscle fibers stimulated

18

Peak tension production occurs when all motor units in the muscle contract in a state of...

Complete tetanus

19

In a concentric isotonic contraction...

The cross bridges must produce enough tension to overcome the resistance

20

In an isometric contraction...

Tension rises but the length of the muscle remains constant

21

A high blood concentration of the enzyme creatine kinase usually indicates...

Serious muscle damage

22

Mitochondrial activities are relatively efficient, but their rate of ATP generation is limited by the...

Availability of oxygen

23

What has been correlated with muscle fatigue?

A decline of pH within the muscle, altering enzyme activities

24

During the recovery period, the body's oxygen demand is...

Elevated above normal resting levels

25

The three major types of skeletal muscle fibers in the human body are...

Slow, intermediate, fast

26

Extensive blood vessels, mitochondria, and myoglobin are found in the greatest concentration in...

Slow fibers

27

The length of time a muscle can continue to contract while supported by mitochondrial activities is referred to as...

Aerobic endurance

28

Altering the characteristics of muscle fibers and improving the performance of the cardiovascular system results in improving...

Aerobic endurance

29

The property of cardiac muscle that allows it to contract without neural stimulation is...

Automaticity

30

Structurally, smooth muscle cells differ from skeletal muscle cells because smooth muscle cells...

Lack myofibrils and sarcomeres

31

Smooth muscle tissue differs from other muscle tissue in...

1. Excitation-contraction coupling
2. Length-tension relationships
3. Control of contraction

32

Neural, hormonal, or chemicals factors can stimulate smooth muscle contraction, producing...

A decrease in muscle tone

33

Muscle contraction occurs as a result of...

Interactions between the thick and thin filaments of ten sarcomeres

34

The area of the A band in the sarcomere consists of...

M line, H band, and zone of overlap

35

The process of cross bridging, which occurs at an active site, involves a series of sequential cyclic reactions that include...

Attach, pivot, detach, and return

36

Excitation-contraction coupling forms the link between...

Electrical activity in the sarcolemma and the initiation of a contraction

37

When Ca2+ binds to troponin, it produces a change by...

Exposing the active site on the thin filaments

38

The phase of a single twitch in sequential order are...

Latent period, contraction phase, relaxation phase

39

After contraction, a muscle fiber returns to its original length through...

Elastic forces and the movement of opposing muscles

40

A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in...

Incomplete tetanus

41

The process of reaching complete tetanus is obtained by...

Increasing the rate of stimulation until the relaxation phase is completely eliminated

42

The total force exerted by a muscle as a whole depends on...

1. The rate of stimulation
2. How many motor units are activated
3. The number of calcium ions released

43

The principal energy reserves found in skeletal muscle cells are...

ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen

44

The two mechanisms used to generate ATP from glucose are...

Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

45

In anaerobic glycolysis, glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid, which is converted to...

Lactic acid

46

The maintenance of normal body temperature is dependent upon...

The production of heat by muscles

47

Growth hormone from the pituitary gland and the male sex hormone, testosterone, stimulate...

Synthesis of contractile proteins and the enlargement of skeletal muscles

48

The hormone responsible for stimulating muscle metabolism and increasing the force of contraction during a sudden crisis is...

Epinephrine

49

The type of skeletal muscle fibers that have low fatigue resistance are...

Fast fibers

50

An example of an activity that requires anaerobic endurance is...

A 50 yard dash

51

Athletes training to develop anaerobic endurance perform...

Frequent, brief, intensive workouts

52

The major support that the muscular system gets from the cardiovascular system is...

Nutrient and oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal