Chapter 6- Tissue And Bone Structure Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and physiology > Chapter 6- Tissue And Bone Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6- Tissue And Bone Structure Deck (46)
0

The functions of the skeletal system are...

1. It is a storage area for calcium and lipids
2. It is involved in blood cell formation
3. It's provides structural support for the entire body

1

Storage of lipids that represent an important energy reserve in bone occur in areas of...

Yellow marrow

2

Give an example of a long bone...

Humerus

3

Bones forming the roof of the skull and the scapula are referred to as...

Flat bones

4

Depressions, grooves, and tunnels in bone indicate...

Where blood vessels or nerves lie alongside or penetrate bones

5

An anatomical term used to describe a rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves is...

Foramen

6

Mature bone cells found in lacunae are called...

Osteocytes

7

Giant multinucleated cells involved in the process of osteolysis are...

Osteoclasts

8

One of the basic histological differences between compact and coo guy bone is that in compact bone...

The basic functional unit is the osteon

9

Spongy bone, unlike compact bone, resembles a network of bony struts separated by spaces that are normally filled with...

Bone marrow

10

Songs bone is found primarily at the........of long bones

Expanded ends of long bones, where they articulate with other skeletal elements

11

Compact bone is usually thickest where...

Stresses arrive from a limited range of directions

12

During intramembranous ossification, the developing bone grows outward from the ossification center in small struts called...

Spicules

13

When osteoblasts begin to differentiate within a mesenchymal or fibrous connective tissue, the process is called...

Intramembranous ossification

14

The process during which bones begin development as cartilage models and the cartilage is later replaced by bone is called...

Endochondral ossification

15

Within the metaphysis region is the epiphyseal cartilage, where...

Cartilage is being replaced by bone

16

The process of removing and replacing bone's organic and mineral components is called...

Remodeling

17

The major effect exercise has on bones is that it...

Serves to maintain and increase bone mass

18

Growth hormone from the pituitary gland and thyroxine from the thyroid gland maintain normal bone growth activity at the...

Epiphyseal plates

19

What describes a homeostatic mechanism of the skeleton?

1. As one osteon forms through the activity of osteoblasts, another is destroyed by osteoclasts
2. Adjusting the rate of calcium excretion by the kidneys
3. Vitamin D stimulating the absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions

20

When larger numbers of calcium ions are mobilized into the body fluids, the bones...

Become weaker

21

In a greenstick fracture...

Only one side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent

22

A Pott's fracture, which occurs at the ankle, is identified primarily by...

Its specific location

23

A normal part of the aging process results in bones becoming...

Thinner and weaker

24

The condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to comprise normal function is...

Osteoporosis

25

Osteoporosis is more frequent in older women than older men due to...

Decline in circulating estrogen

26

Changing the magnitude and direction of forces generated by skeletal muscles is an illustration of the skeletal function of...

Leverage

27

A sesamoid bone would most often be found...

Near joints at the knee, the hands, and the feet

28

The outer surface of the bone, the periosteum,...

1. Isolates the bone from surrounding tissues
2. Provides a route for circulatory and nervous supply
3. Actively participates in bone growth and repair

29

Osteolysis is an important process in the regulation of...

Calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids

30

The calcification of cartilage results in the production of...

Calcified cartilage

31

Two thirds of the weight of bone is accounted for by...

Crystals of calcium phosphate

32

Healing of a fracture, even after severe damage, depends on the survival of...

The circulatory supply and the cellular components of the endosteum and periosteum

33

Three target sites for regulating the calcium ion concentration in body fluids are the...

Bones, intestinal tract, and kidneys

34

when the calcium ion concentration of the blood rises above normal, secretion of the hormone calcitonin...

Increases the rate of calcium ion excretion

35

When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones...

Grow longer

36

The major advantage for bones to undergo continual remodeling are...

1. It may change the shape of the bone
2. It may change the internal structure of a bone
3. It may change the total amount of minerals deposited in the bones

37

The fibers of tendons intermingle with those of the periosteum, attaching...

Skeletal muscles to bones

38

Giant cells, called osteoclasts, with 50 or nuclei serve to...

Secretes acids that dissolve the bony matrix and release the stored minerals

39

After fertilization occurs, the skeleton begins to forms in about...

Six weeks

40

The circulating hormones that stimulate bone growth...

Growth hormone and thyroxine

41

Appositional bone growth at the outer surface results in a...

Increase in the diameter of a growing bone

42

The vitamins that are specifically required for normal bone growth are...

Vitamins A, C, D

43

The hormones that coordinate the storage, absorption, and excretion of calcium ions are...

Estrogens and androgens

44

A bone is covered by an...

Periosteum and lined with an endosteum

45

A fracture that projects through the skin is a...

Compound fracture