Flashcards in Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Deck (80)
Cellular activities are coordinated throughout the body by the endocrine system to...
the endocrine systems regulates long-term processes such as growth and development by using...
chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells
situations requiring split-second responses, or crisis management, are the job of the _________ system.
Gap junctions involved in direct communication between two cells of the same type serve to...
1. coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells
2. coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells
3. facilitate the prorogation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses
an example of a functional similarity between the nervous system and the endocrine system is...
compounds used a hormones by the endocrine system may also function as neurotransmitters inside the CNS
the endocrine system expresses an organization that allows for...
1. localized effects
2. effects on distant targets
3. simultaneous coordination of many widespread targets
the three different groups of hormones based on their chemical structure are...
amino acids derivatives, peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives
the biogenic amino hormones include...
E, NE, dopamine, melatonin, and thyroid hormones
most peptide hormones are produced as...
the reason steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than the other groups of hormones is because they are...
bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma
hormones alter the operations of target cells by changing the...
types, quantities, or activities of important enzymes and structural proteins
catecholamines and peptide hormones affect target organ cells by...
second messengers activated by G protein complexes when receptor binding occurs at the membrane surface
steroid hormones affect target organ cells by...
binding to target receptors in the nucleus
endocrine cells responding directly to changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid are an example of an...
the hypothalamus is a major coordinating and control center because it...
contains autonomic centers and acts as an endocrine organ
the most notable effect of ADH prooduced in the neurohypophysis of the pituatury gland is to...
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
stimulation of contractile cells in mammary tissue and uterine muscles in the female is initiated by secretion of...
oxytocin from the posterior pituatary
the structure that locks the pituitary gland in position and isolates it from the cranial cavity is the...
the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a slender, funnel-shaped structure called the...
the small, oval piptuitary gland lies nestled within a depression of the sphenoid bone called the...
the two classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones are...
releasing and inhibiting
the two gonadotropic hormones secreated by the anterior pituitary are...
LH and FSH
the hormonal effect of ACTH produced by the adenohypophysis is...
secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
the gonadotropins FSH and LH exert their hormonal effects in the ______ of the male and female.
an abnormally low production of gonadotropin produces a condition called...
when the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH, the result is development of...
if abnormal amounts of glucocortoids are released by the adrenal cortex, it affects....
the thyroid gland curves across the anterior surface of the trachea just inferior to the...
the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...
a two-lobed gland united by an isthmus
the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...
thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin
the overall effect of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland is...
an increase in cellular rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption
inadequate production of thyroid hormones in infants produces cretinism, a condition marked by...
inadequate skeletal and nervous system development
hypothyroidism, myxedema, and goiter may result from an inadequate amount of...
the two pairs of parathyroid glands are embedded in the...
posterior surfaces of the thyroid glands
the net result of parathyroid hormone secretion is that it...
increases Ca2+ concentration in body fluids
the highly vascularized, pyramid-shaped adrenal gland is located on the...
superior border of each kidney
the adrenal cortex consists of a...
zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reitcularis
the hormones released by the adrenal medulla are...
epinephrine and norepinephrine
the hormonal effects produced by adrenal epinephrine are...
1. increased cardiac activity
2. increased blood glucose levels
3. increased glycogen breakdown
the mineralocorticoid aldosterone targets kidney cells and causes the...
retention of sodium ions and water, reducing body fluid losses.
the pineal gland is located in the...
posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle
the pinealocytes of the pineal gland produce the hormone melatonin, which is believed to...
1. be an effective antioxidant
2. maintain basic circadian rhythms
3. inhibit reproductive function
the pancreas lies in the J-shaped loop between the stomach and the small intestine in the ________ cavity.
the cells of the pancreatic islets of the endocrine pancreas include...
alpha, beta, delta, and F cells
the hormones produced by the pancreatic islets that regulate blood glucose concentrations are...
insulin and glucagon
the pancreatic hormone pancreatic polypeptide...
1. regulates production of some pancreatic enzymes
2. inhibits gallblader contractions
3. may control the rate of nutrient absorption
inadequate insulin production can lead to...
1. diabetes mellitus
a common diabetes-related medical problem is...
partial or complete blindness
the normal effect of erythropoietin produced by the kidney is to...
stimulate red blood cell production
one of the major effects of ANP produced by the heart is that it...
the thymosins produced by the thymus affect the...
development and maturation of lymphocytes
testosterone produced in the interstital cells of the testes is responsible for...
1. promoting the production of functional sperm
2. determining male secondary sexual characterisitics
3. protein synthesis in skeletal muscles
the hormone leptin produced in adipose tissues targets the hypothalamus to affect...
suppression of appetite
the two hormones that have an antagonistic or opposing effect are...
insulin and glucagon
the additive effects of growth hormone and glucocorticoids illustrate the _________ effect.
the differing but complementary effect of calcitriol and parathyroid hormone on tissues involved in calcium metabolism illustrate the __________ effect.
the hormones that are of primary importance to normal growth include...
GH, thyroid hormones, insulin, PTH, and reproductive hormones
insulin is important to normal growth because it promotes...
adequate supplies of nutrients and energy for growing cells
the body's response to stress is the general adaption syndrome, which consists of the phases...
1. alarm phase
2. resistance phase
3. normal development
when the body's temperature falls below normal, the homeostatic adjustment responses will include...
shivering or changes in the pattern of blood flow
in children, when sex hormones are produced prematurely, the obvious behavioral changes will cause the child to be...
aggressive and assertive
in adults, changes in the mixtures of hormones reaching the CNS can have significant effects on....
1. memory and learning
2. emotional states
3. intellectual capabilities
an oprganinc compound that has been implicated in causing heart and blood vessel problems, but is necessary for the production of corticosteroids, is...
the specialized cells in the parathyroid glands that secret parathyroid hormone are...
the two basic categories of endocrine disorders are...
abnormal hormones production and abnormal cellular sensitivity
the most dramatic functional change that occurs in the endocrine system due to aging is a...
decline in the concentration of reproductive hormones
all of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, heart, kidneys, thymus, digestive tract, and pancreas are...
________ hormones bind to plasma membrane recpetors attached to G proteins that activate second messengers to create target cell response; _______ hormones bind to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors and creat target response by turning genes on or off.
the hypothalamus has a profound effect on endocrine functions through the secretion of....
releasing and inhibiting hormones
a pituitary endocrine cells that is stimulated by a releasing hormone is usually _________ by the periphreal hormone it controls
endocrine reflexes, the functional counterparts of neural reflexes, can be triggered by ________ stimuli.
the body system that adjust metabolic rates and substrate utilization is the _______ system.
nurse cells in the testes support the....
differentiation and physical maturation of sperm
the protein hormone prolactin is involved with...
production of milk
the amino acid derivative hormone epinephrine is responsible for...
1. increase cardiac activity
2. glycogen breakdown
3. release of lipids by adipose tissues
the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces steriod hormones that are known as glucocorticoids because of their...
effects on glucose metabolism
corticosteroids are hormones that are produced and secreted by the...
cortex of the adrenal glands
the endocrine functions of the kidney and the heart include the production and secretion of the hormones...
erythropoietin and atrial natriuretic peptide
the testis of the male produces the endocrine hormones...
ingibin and testosterone