Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Deck (80)
1

Cellular activities are coordinated throughout the body by the endocrine system to...

preserve homeostasis

2

the endocrine systems regulates long-term processes such as growth and development by using...

chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells

3

situations requiring split-second responses, or crisis management, are the job of the _________ system.

nervous

4

Gap junctions involved in direct communication between two cells of the same type serve to...

1. coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells
2. coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells
3. facilitate the prorogation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses

5

an example of a functional similarity between the nervous system and the endocrine system is...

compounds used a hormones by the endocrine system may also function as neurotransmitters inside the CNS

6

the endocrine system expresses an organization that allows for...

1. localized effects
2. effects on distant targets
3. simultaneous coordination of many widespread targets

7

the three different groups of hormones based on their chemical structure are...

amino acids derivatives, peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives

8

the biogenic amino hormones include...

E, NE, dopamine, melatonin, and thyroid hormones

9

most peptide hormones are produced as...

prohormones

10

the reason steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than the other groups of hormones is because they are...

bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma

11

hormones alter the operations of target cells by changing the...

types, quantities, or activities of important enzymes and structural proteins

12

catecholamines and peptide hormones affect target organ cells by...

second messengers activated by G protein complexes when receptor binding occurs at the membrane surface

13

steroid hormones affect target organ cells by...

binding to target receptors in the nucleus

14

endocrine cells responding directly to changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid are an example of an...

endocrine reflex

15

the hypothalamus is a major coordinating and control center because it...

contains autonomic centers and acts as an endocrine organ

16

the most notable effect of ADH prooduced in the neurohypophysis of the pituatury gland is to...

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

17

stimulation of contractile cells in mammary tissue and uterine muscles in the female is initiated by secretion of...

oxytocin from the posterior pituatary

18

the structure that locks the pituitary gland in position and isolates it from the cranial cavity is the...

sellar diaphragm

19

the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a slender, funnel-shaped structure called the...

infundibulum

20

the small, oval piptuitary gland lies nestled within a depression of the sphenoid bone called the...

sella turcica

21

the two classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones are...

releasing and inhibiting

22

the two gonadotropic hormones secreated by the anterior pituitary are...

LH and FSH

23

the hormonal effect of ACTH produced by the adenohypophysis is...

secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex

24

the gonadotropins FSH and LH exert their hormonal effects in the ______ of the male and female.

reproductive system

25

an abnormally low production of gonadotropin produces a condition called...

hypogonadism

26

when the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH, the result is development of...

diabetes insipidus

27

if abnormal amounts of glucocortoids are released by the adrenal cortex, it affects....

glucose metabolism

28

the thyroid gland curves across the anterior surface of the trachea just inferior to the...

thyroid cartilage

29

the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...

a two-lobed gland united by an isthmus

30

the hormones produced by the thyroid gland are...

thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin

31

the overall effect of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland is...

an increase in cellular rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption

32

inadequate production of thyroid hormones in infants produces cretinism, a condition marked by...

inadequate skeletal and nervous system development

33

hypothyroidism, myxedema, and goiter may result from an inadequate amount of...

dietary iodide

34

the two pairs of parathyroid glands are embedded in the...

posterior surfaces of the thyroid glands

35

the net result of parathyroid hormone secretion is that it...

increases Ca2+ concentration in body fluids

36

the highly vascularized, pyramid-shaped adrenal gland is located on the...

superior border of each kidney

37

the adrenal cortex consists of a...

zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reitcularis

38

the hormones released by the adrenal medulla are...

epinephrine and norepinephrine

39

the hormonal effects produced by adrenal epinephrine are...

1. increased cardiac activity
2. increased blood glucose levels
3. increased glycogen breakdown

40

the mineralocorticoid aldosterone targets kidney cells and causes the...

retention of sodium ions and water, reducing body fluid losses.

41

the pineal gland is located in the...

posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle

42

the pinealocytes of the pineal gland produce the hormone melatonin, which is believed to...

1. be an effective antioxidant
2. maintain basic circadian rhythms
3. inhibit reproductive function

43

the pancreas lies in the J-shaped loop between the stomach and the small intestine in the ________ cavity.

abdominopelvic

44

the cells of the pancreatic islets of the endocrine pancreas include...

alpha, beta, delta, and F cells

45

the hormones produced by the pancreatic islets that regulate blood glucose concentrations are...

insulin and glucagon

46

the pancreatic hormone pancreatic polypeptide...

1. regulates production of some pancreatic enzymes
2. inhibits gallblader contractions
3. may control the rate of nutrient absorption

47

inadequate insulin production can lead to...

1. diabetes mellitus
2. hyperglycemia
3. glycosuria

48

a common diabetes-related medical problem is...

partial or complete blindness

49

the normal effect of erythropoietin produced by the kidney is to...

stimulate red blood cell production

50

one of the major effects of ANP produced by the heart is that it...

decreases thirst

51

the thymosins produced by the thymus affect the...

development and maturation of lymphocytes

52

testosterone produced in the interstital cells of the testes is responsible for...

1. promoting the production of functional sperm
2. determining male secondary sexual characterisitics
3. protein synthesis in skeletal muscles

53

the hormone leptin produced in adipose tissues targets the hypothalamus to affect...

suppression of appetite

54

the two hormones that have an antagonistic or opposing effect are...

insulin and glucagon

55

the additive effects of growth hormone and glucocorticoids illustrate the _________ effect.

synergistic

56

the differing but complementary effect of calcitriol and parathyroid hormone on tissues involved in calcium metabolism illustrate the __________ effect.

integrative

57

the hormones that are of primary importance to normal growth include...

GH, thyroid hormones, insulin, PTH, and reproductive hormones

58

insulin is important to normal growth because it promotes...

adequate supplies of nutrients and energy for growing cells

59

the body's response to stress is the general adaption syndrome, which consists of the phases...

1. alarm phase
2. resistance phase
3. normal development

60

when the body's temperature falls below normal, the homeostatic adjustment responses will include...

shivering or changes in the pattern of blood flow

61

in children, when sex hormones are produced prematurely, the obvious behavioral changes will cause the child to be...

aggressive and assertive

62

in adults, changes in the mixtures of hormones reaching the CNS can have significant effects on....

1. memory and learning
2. emotional states
3. intellectual capabilities

63

an oprganinc compound that has been implicated in causing heart and blood vessel problems, but is necessary for the production of corticosteroids, is...

cholesterol

64

the specialized cells in the parathyroid glands that secret parathyroid hormone are...

chief cells

65

the two basic categories of endocrine disorders are...

abnormal hormones production and abnormal cellular sensitivity

66

the most dramatic functional change that occurs in the endocrine system due to aging is a...

decline in the concentration of reproductive hormones

67

all of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, heart, kidneys, thymus, digestive tract, and pancreas are...

peptide hormones

68

________ hormones bind to plasma membrane recpetors attached to G proteins that activate second messengers to create target cell response; _______ hormones bind to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors and creat target response by turning genes on or off.

peptide; steroid

69

the hypothalamus has a profound effect on endocrine functions through the secretion of....

releasing and inhibiting hormones

70

a pituitary endocrine cells that is stimulated by a releasing hormone is usually _________ by the periphreal hormone it controls

inhibited

71

endocrine reflexes, the functional counterparts of neural reflexes, can be triggered by ________ stimuli.

1. humoral
2. hormonal
3. neural

72

the body system that adjust metabolic rates and substrate utilization is the _______ system.

endocrine

73

nurse cells in the testes support the....

differentiation and physical maturation of sperm

74

the protein hormone prolactin is involved with...

production of milk

75

the amino acid derivative hormone epinephrine is responsible for...

1. increase cardiac activity
2. glycogen breakdown
3. release of lipids by adipose tissues

76

the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces steriod hormones that are known as glucocorticoids because of their...

effects on glucose metabolism

77

corticosteroids are hormones that are produced and secreted by the...

cortex of the adrenal glands

78

the endocrine functions of the kidney and the heart include the production and secretion of the hormones...

erythropoietin and atrial natriuretic peptide

79

the testis of the male produces the endocrine hormones...

ingibin and testosterone

80

the endocrine tissue of the ovaries in the female produce...

estrogens, inhibin, and progesterone