Chapter 26: The Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26: The Urinary System Deck (57)
1

urine leaving the kidneys travels along the following sequential pathway to the exterior:

ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

2

which organ or structure does not belong to the urinary system?

gallbladder

3

seen in section, the kidney is divided into...

an outer cortex and an inner medulla

4

the basic functional unit in the kidney is the...

nephron

5

the three concentric layers of connective tissue that protect and anchor the kidneys are the...

fibrous capsule, perinephritic fat capsule, and renal fascia

6

blood supply to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron is provided by the...

peritubular capillaries

7

in a nephron, the long tubular passageway through which the filtrate passes includes the...

proximal and distal convoluted tubules and nephron loop

8

the primary sites of regulating water, sodium, and potassium ion loss in the nephron are the...

nephron loop and collecting duct

9

the primary site for secretion of substances into the filtrate is the...

distal convoluted tubule

10

the initial factor that determines if urine production occurs is...

filtration

11

the three processes involved in urine formation are...

filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

12

the filtration of plasma that generates approximately 180 liters/day of filtrate occurs in the...

renal corpuscle

13

approximately 60-70 percent of the water is reabsorbed in the...

proximal convoluted tubule

14

the portion of the renal tubule that is under aldosterone stimulation is the...

distal convoluted tubule

15

the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule are seperated by the U-shaped tube called the...

nephron loop

16

the location and orientation of the carrier proteins determine whether a particular substance is reabsorbed or secreted in...

1. active transport
2. cotransport
3. countertransport

17

dilation of the afferent arteriole, contraction of mesengial cells, and constriction of the efferent arteriole causes...

elevation of glomerular blood pressure

18

the glomerular filtration rate is regulated by...

1. autoregulation
2. hormonal regulation
3. autonomic regulation

19

the pressure that tends to draw water out of the filtrate and into the plasma, opposing filtration, is the...

blood colloid osmotic pressure

20

the three primary waste products found in a representative urine sample are...

ions, metabolites, and nitrogenous

21

the average pH for normal urine is about...

6.0

22

the mechanisms responsible for the reabsorption of organic molecules from the tubular fluid are...

cotransport and facilitated diffusion

23

countertransport resembles cotransport in all respects except...

the two transported ions move in opposite directions

24

the primary site of nutrient reabsorption in the nephron is the...

proximal convoluted tubule

25

in countercurrent multiplication, the countercurrent refers to the fact that an exchange occurs between...

fluids moving in opposite directions

26

the result of the countercurrent multiplication mechanism is...

increased solute concentration in the descending limb of the nephron loop

27

when anitdiuretic hormone levels rise, the distal convoluted tubule becomes...

more permeable to water; water reabsorption increases

28

the result of the effect of aldosterone along the DCT, the collecting tubule and the collecting duct is...

increased conservation of sodium ions and water

29

the openings of the urethra and the two ureters mark an area on the internal surface of the urinary bladder called the...

trigone

30

when urine leaves the kidney, it travels to the urinary bladder via the...

ureters

31

the expanded, funnel-shaped upper end of the ureter in the kidney is the...

renal pelvis

32

contraction of the muscular bladder forces the urine out of the body through the...

urethra

33

during the micturition reflex, increased afferent fiber activity in the pelvic nerves facilitates...

parasympathetic motor neurons in the sacral spinal cord

34

urine reaches the urinary bladder by the...

peristaltic contractions of the ureters

35

in males, enlargement of the prostate gland compresses the urethra and restricts the flow of urine, causing...

urinary retention

36

along with the urinary system, the other systems of the body that affect the composition of body fluids are the...

integumentary, respiratory, and digestive

37

the system that monitors distention of the urinary bladder and controls urination is the....

nervous system

38

the vital functions preformed by the nephrons in the kidneys are...

1. production of filtrate
2. reabsorption of organic substrates
3. reabsorption of water and ions

39

the renal corpuscle consists of the...

glomerular capsule and the glomerulus

40

the filtration process within the renal corpuscle involves passage across three physical barriers, the...

capillary endothelium, dense layer, visceral epithelium

41

the thin segments in the nephron loop are...

freely permeable to water, but relatively impermeable to ions and other solutes

42

the thick segments in the nephron loop contains...

transport mechanisms that pump material out of the filtrate

43

the collecting system in the kidney is responsible for...

making final adjustments to the sodium ion concentration and volume of urine

44

blood arrives at the renal corpuscle by the way of an...

afferent arteriole

45

sympathetic innervation into the kidney is responsible for...

1. altering the GFR by changing the regional pattern of blood circulation
2. stimulation of renin release
3. altering the GFR by changing the regional pattern of blood circulation

46

when plasma glucose concentrations are higher than the renal threshold, glucose concentrations in the filtrate exceed the tubular maximum and...

glucose appears in the urine

47

the outward pressure forcing water and solute molecules across the glomerulus wall is the __________ pressure.

glomerular hydrostatic

48

the opposing forces of the filtration pressure at the glomerulus are the...

net hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure

49

the amount of filtrate produced in the kidneys each minute is the...

glomerular filtration rate

50

inadequate ADH secretion results in the inability to reclaim the water entering the filtrate, causing...

dehydration

51

under normal circumstances, virtually all the glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients are reabsorbed before the filtrate leaves the...

proximal convoluted tubule

52

aldosterone stimulates ion pumps along the distal convoluted tubule, the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct, causing an...

reduction in the number of sodium ions lost in the urine

53

the high osmotic concentrations found in the kidney medulla are primarily due to...

the presence of sodium ions,chloride ions, and urea

54

the substances that influence the glomerular filtration rate by regulating blood pressure and volume are...

renin, ANP, and ADH

55

angiotensin II is a potent hormone that...

1. causes constriction of the efferent arteriole at the nephron
2. triggers the release of ADH in the CNS
3. stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and epinephrine by the adrenal medulla

56

sympathetic innervation of the afferent arterioles causes a...

decrease in GFR and decrease of filtrate production

57

during periods of strenuous exercise, sympathetic activation causes the blood flow to...

increase to the skin and skeletal muscles, but decrease to the kidneys