Chapter 25: Metabolism and Energetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25: Metabolism and Energetics Deck (49)
1

the term metabolism refers to all of the...

chemical reactions that occur in the body

2

the source that cells rely on to provide energy and to create new intracellular components is the...

nutrient pool

3

the periodic breakdown and replacement of the organic components of a cell is called...

metabolic turnover

4

the process that breaks down organic substrates, releasing energy that can be used to synthesize ATP or other high-energy compounds, is...

catabolism

5

acetyl-CoA cannot be used to make glucose because the...

decarboxylation step between pyruvic acid and acetyl-CoA cannot be reversed

6

in glycolysis, six-carbon glucose molecules are broken down into 2 three-carbon molecules of...

pyruvic acid

7

the first step in a sequence of enzymatic reactions in the citric acid cycle is the formation of...

citric acid

8

for each glucose molecule converted to 2 pyruvates, the anaerobic reaction sequence in glycolysis provides a net gain of...

2 ATP for the cell

9

the complete catabolism of a glucose molecule yields a net of ___________ molecules of ATP.

36

10

lipids cannot provide large amounts of ATP in a short period of time because...

1. lipid reserves are difficult to mobilize
2. lipids are insoluble and it is difficult for water-soluble enzymes to reach them
3. most lipid are processed in mitochondria, and mitochondrial activity is limited by the availability of oxygen

11

lipogenesis is an effective lipid metabolic pathway because lipids, as well as carbohydrates and amino acids, can be converted into...

acetyl-CoA

12

most lipids circulate through the bloodstream as...

lipoproteins

13

lipids are needed throughout the body because all cells require lipids to...

maintain their cell membranes

14

protein catabolism is an impractical primary energy source because...

1. proteins are more difficult to break apart than are carbohydrates or lipid
2. one of the by-products or protein catabolism, ammonium ions, is toxic to cells
3. proteins are important structural and functional cellular components

15

the first step in amino acid catabolism is the removal of the...

amino group

16

an important energy reserve that can be broken down when a cell cannot obtain enough glucose from intersitial fluid is...

glycogen

17

the metabolic pattern characterized by nutrient absorption, anabolism, and insulin dominance is the...

absorptive state

18

a balanced diet contains all of the ingredients necessary to...

maintain homeostasis

19

the metabolic pattern characterized by catabolism of internal energy reserves, elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood, and a focus on maintaining homeostatic blood glucose levels is the...

postabsorptive state

20

foods that provide all essential amino acids in sufficient quantities...

complete proteins

21

inorganic ions released through dissociation of electrolytes and involved in a number of physiological functions are known as...

minerals

22

minerals, vitamins, and water are classified as essential nutrients because...

the body cannot synthesize the nutrients in sufficient quantities

23

examples of trace minerals found in small quantities in the body include...

iron, zinc, copper, and manganese

24

hypervitaminosis involving water-soluble vitamins is relatively uncommon because...

excessive amounts are readily excreted in the urine

25

to examine the metabolic rate of an individual, results may be expressed as...

1. calories per hour
2. calories per day
3. calories per unit of body weight per day

26

an individual's basal metabolic rate ideally represents...

the minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person

27

if your daily intake exceeds your total energy demands, you will store the excess energy primarily as...

triglycerides in adipose tissue

28

the four processes involved in heat exchange with the environment are...

radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation

29

the primary mechanism for increasing heat loss in the body include...

vasomotor and respiratory

30

the major metabolic pathways that provide most of the ATP used by typical cells are...

glycolysis and aerobic respiration

31

a cells with excess carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids will break down carbohydrates to...

obtain energy

32

fatty acids and many amino acids cannot be converted to glucose because...

their catabolic pathways produce acetyl-CoA

33

lipogenesis can use almost any organic substrate because...

lipids, amino acids, and carbohydrates can be converted to acetyl-CoA

34

when more nitrogen is absorbed than excreted, an individual is said to be in a state of...

positive nitrogen balance

35

the catabolism of lipids results in the release of...

9.46 C/g

36

the catabolism of carbohydrates and proteins results in the release of...

4.18 C/g and 4.32 C/g, respectively

37

the process that produces more than 90 percent of the ATP used by body cells is...

oxidative phosphoylation

38

examples of essential fatty acids that cannot by synthesized by the body but must be included in the diet are...

linoleic and linolenic acids

39

most lipids circulate through the bloodstream as...

lipoproteins

40

the primary function of very-low-density lipoproteins is....

transporting triglycerides to peripheral tissues

41

LDLs are absorbed by cells through the process of...

receptor-mediated endocytosis

42

in the beta-oxidation of an 18-carbon fatty acid molecule, the cell gains...

144 ATP

43

most of the lipids absorbed by the digestive tract are immediately transferred to the...

venous circulation via the lymphatic duct

44

after a meal, the absorptive state continues for about...

4 hours

45

when the amount of nitrogen you absorb from the diet is equal to the amount you lose in urin and feces, you are in...

nitrogen balance

46

an important energy source during periods of starvation, when glucose supplies are limited, is...

free fatty acids

47

hypervitaminosis usually involves one of the fat-soluble vitamins because...

is retained and stored in the body

48

milk and eggs are complete proteins because they contain...

all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities

49

a nitrogen compound important in energy storage in muscle tissue is...

creatine