Flashcards in Chapter 16: Neural Integration II Deck (52)
A distinct similarity between the organization of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems is that both are...
efferent divisions that carry motor commands
The lower motor neurons of the SNS exert direct control over skeletal muscles. By contrast, the ANS there is...
a synapse of visceral motor neurons, which lie between the CNS and peripheral effector
The systems that coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive functions is the...
autonomic nervous system
The division of the nervous system that "kicks in" during periods of exertion, stress, or emergency is the...
sympathetic division of the ANS
Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar segments form part of the...
sympathetic division of the ANS
The nerve bundle that carries preganglionic fibers to a nearby sympathetic chain ganglion is the...
Sympathetic post ganglionic fibers entering the thoracic cavity can create...
1. an accelerated heart rate
2. increased force of cardiac contractions
3. dilated respiratory passageways
The effect of secretions from the adrenal medulla is that they...
last longer than those produced by direct sympathetic stimulation
at their synapses with ganglionic neurons, all preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic division release...
at neuroeffector junctions, typical sympathetic postganglionic fibers release...
The sympathetic division can change tissue and organ activities by...
1. releasing norepinephrine at peripheral synapses
2. distribution of norepinephrine by the blood stream
3. distribution of epinephrine by the bloodstream
Cholinergic postganglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate the sweat glands of the skin and the blood vessels of the skeletal muscles are stimulated during exercise to...
keep the body cool and provide oxygen and nutrients to active skeletal muscles
in general, the parasympathetic division of the ANS predominates...
under resting condition
Preganglionic neurons in the parasympatheitc division of the ANS originate in the...
brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord
At synapses and neuroeffector junctions, all preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic division release...
whethers a neurotransmitter produces stimulation or inhibition of activity depends on the...
response of the membrane receptor to the presence of the neurotransmitter
the two types of parasympathetic receptors that occur on the postsynaptic membranes are...
nicotinic and muscarinic
compared to sympathetic stimulation, the effects of parasympathetic stimulation are usually...
more specific and localized
the major effects produced by the parasympathetic division include...
1. secretion by digestive glands
2. increase smooth muscle activity alone the digestive tract
3. constriction of the respiratory passageway
where dual innervation exists, the two divisions of the ANS commonly have...
autonomic tone is present in the heart because...
acetylcholine released by the parasympathetic division decreases the heart rate, and norepinephrine released by the sympathetic division accelerates the heart rate
the primary factor that determines an individual's autonomic tone is the...
autonomic motor neuron activity
the lowest level of integration in the ANS consists of...
visceral motor neurons that participate in cranial and spinal visceral reflexes
coordination and regulation of sympathetic function occurs in centers in the medulla oblongata, which can be influenced directly at an additional level by activity of the...
a visceral reflex arc consists of a receptor, a sensory neuron, a processing center , and...
two visceral motor neurons
visceral reflexes have the same basic components as somatic reflexes, but all visceral reflexes are...
visceral reflexes provide...
automatic motor responses
when a bright light shines in the eyes, a parasympathetic reflex causes...
constriction of the pupils in both eyes
the cellular mechanism that seem to be involved in memory formation and storage include...
1. increased neurotransmitter release
2. facilitation of synapses
3. formation of additional synaptic connections
the two components if the limbic system essential to memory consolidation are the...
amygdaloid body and hippocampus
a state of awareness of and attention to external events and stimuli implies...
an important brain stem component involved in the conscious state is the...
reticular activation system
when the heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and energy utilization decline by up to 30 percent, it indicates...
slow wave or nor-REM sleep
compunds that inhibit serotonin production or block its action cause...
severe depression and anxiety
compounds that stimulate norepinephrine release in certain brain pathways can cause...
the most common and incapacitating form of senile dementia is...
the axon of a ganglionic neuron is called a postganglionic fiber because it carries impulses...
away from the ganglion
the effects produced by sympathetic postganglionic fibers in spinal nerves includes...
1. stimulation of secretion by sweat glands
2. acceleration of blood flow to skeletal muscles
3. dilation of the pupils and focusing of the eyes
the summary effects of the collateral ganglia include...
redirection of blood flow and energy use by visceral organs and release of stored energy
stimulation of alpha-1 receptors on a target cell generally cause...
an excitatory effect
the major structural difference between sympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is that...
preganglionic fibers are short and postganglionic fibers are long
the parasympathetic division innervates areas serviced by the cranial nerves and innervates...
organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
vasomotor reflexes are responsible for...
changes in the diameter of peripheral blood vessels to maintain a normal range of blood pressure
the functions of the parasympathetic division center on...
relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption
during a crisi, the event necessary for the individual to cope with stressful and potentially dangerous situations is called...
the two classes of sympathetic receptors are...
alpha and beta receptors
intramural ganglia are components of the parasympathetic division that are located...
inside the tissues of visceral organs
parasympathetic preganlionic fibers of the vagus nerve entering the abdominopelvic cavity join the_________plexus.
sensory nerves deliver information to the CNS along...
1. spinal nerves
2. cranial nerves
3. autonomic nerves that innervate visceral effectors
Give examples of sympathetic reflexes.
baroreceptor, vasomotor, pupillary dilation, and ejaculation reflexes
in general, the primary results of treatment with beta-blockers are...
1. reducing the load on the heart and lowering peripheral blood pressure
2. decreasing the heart rate
3. decreasing the force of contraction of the heart