Chapter 16: Neural Integration II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16: Neural Integration II Deck (52)
1

A distinct similarity between the organization of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems is that both are...

efferent divisions that carry motor commands

2

The lower motor neurons of the SNS exert direct control over skeletal muscles. By contrast, the ANS there is...

a synapse of visceral motor neurons, which lie between the CNS and peripheral effector

3

The systems that coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive functions is the...

autonomic nervous system

4

The division of the nervous system that "kicks in" during periods of exertion, stress, or emergency is the...

sympathetic division of the ANS

5

Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar segments form part of the...

sympathetic division of the ANS

6

The nerve bundle that carries preganglionic fibers to a nearby sympathetic chain ganglion is the...

white ramus

7

Sympathetic post ganglionic fibers entering the thoracic cavity can create...

1. an accelerated heart rate
2. increased force of cardiac contractions
3. dilated respiratory passageways

8

The effect of secretions from the adrenal medulla is that they...

last longer than those produced by direct sympathetic stimulation

9

at their synapses with ganglionic neurons, all preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic division release...

acetylcholine

10

at neuroeffector junctions, typical sympathetic postganglionic fibers release...

norepinephrine

11

The sympathetic division can change tissue and organ activities by...

1. releasing norepinephrine at peripheral synapses
2. distribution of norepinephrine by the blood stream
3. distribution of epinephrine by the bloodstream

12

Cholinergic postganglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate the sweat glands of the skin and the blood vessels of the skeletal muscles are stimulated during exercise to...

keep the body cool and provide oxygen and nutrients to active skeletal muscles

13

in general, the parasympathetic division of the ANS predominates...

under resting condition

14

Preganglionic neurons in the parasympatheitc division of the ANS originate in the...

brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord

15

At synapses and neuroeffector junctions, all preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic division release...

acetylcholine

16

whethers a neurotransmitter produces stimulation or inhibition of activity depends on the...

response of the membrane receptor to the presence of the neurotransmitter

17

the two types of parasympathetic receptors that occur on the postsynaptic membranes are...

nicotinic and muscarinic

18

compared to sympathetic stimulation, the effects of parasympathetic stimulation are usually...

more specific and localized

19

the major effects produced by the parasympathetic division include...

1. secretion by digestive glands
2. increase smooth muscle activity alone the digestive tract
3. constriction of the respiratory passageway

20

where dual innervation exists, the two divisions of the ANS commonly have...

opposing effects

21

autonomic tone is present in the heart because...

acetylcholine released by the parasympathetic division decreases the heart rate, and norepinephrine released by the sympathetic division accelerates the heart rate

22

the primary factor that determines an individual's autonomic tone is the...

autonomic motor neuron activity

23

the lowest level of integration in the ANS consists of...

visceral motor neurons that participate in cranial and spinal visceral reflexes

24

coordination and regulation of sympathetic function occurs in centers in the medulla oblongata, which can be influenced directly at an additional level by activity of the...

hypothalamus

25

a visceral reflex arc consists of a receptor, a sensory neuron, a processing center , and...

two visceral motor neurons

26

visceral reflexes have the same basic components as somatic reflexes, but all visceral reflexes are...

polysynaptic

27

visceral reflexes provide...

automatic motor responses

28

when a bright light shines in the eyes, a parasympathetic reflex causes...

constriction of the pupils in both eyes

29

the cellular mechanism that seem to be involved in memory formation and storage include...

1. increased neurotransmitter release
2. facilitation of synapses
3. formation of additional synaptic connections

30

the two components if the limbic system essential to memory consolidation are the...

amygdaloid body and hippocampus

31

a state of awareness of and attention to external events and stimuli implies...

consciousness

32

an important brain stem component involved in the conscious state is the...

reticular activation system

33

when the heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and energy utilization decline by up to 30 percent, it indicates...

slow wave or nor-REM sleep

34

compunds that inhibit serotonin production or block its action cause...

severe depression and anxiety

35

compounds that stimulate norepinephrine release in certain brain pathways can cause...

exhilaration

36

the most common and incapacitating form of senile dementia is...

Alzheimers disease

37

the axon of a ganglionic neuron is called a postganglionic fiber because it carries impulses...

away from the ganglion

38

the effects produced by sympathetic postganglionic fibers in spinal nerves includes...

1. stimulation of secretion by sweat glands
2. acceleration of blood flow to skeletal muscles
3. dilation of the pupils and focusing of the eyes

39

the summary effects of the collateral ganglia include...

redirection of blood flow and energy use by visceral organs and release of stored energy

40

stimulation of alpha-1 receptors on a target cell generally cause...

an excitatory effect

41

the major structural difference between sympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is that...

preganglionic fibers are short and postganglionic fibers are long

42

the parasympathetic division innervates areas serviced by the cranial nerves and innervates...

organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

43

vasomotor reflexes are responsible for...

changes in the diameter of peripheral blood vessels to maintain a normal range of blood pressure

44

the functions of the parasympathetic division center on...

relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption

45

during a crisi, the event necessary for the individual to cope with stressful and potentially dangerous situations is called...

sympathetic activation

46

the two classes of sympathetic receptors are...

alpha and beta receptors

47

intramural ganglia are components of the parasympathetic division that are located...

inside the tissues of visceral organs

48

parasympathetic preganlionic fibers of the vagus nerve entering the abdominopelvic cavity join the_________plexus.

celiac

49

sensory nerves deliver information to the CNS along...

1. spinal nerves
2. cranial nerves
3. autonomic nerves that innervate visceral effectors

50

Give examples of sympathetic reflexes.

baroreceptor, vasomotor, pupillary dilation, and ejaculation reflexes

51

in general, the primary results of treatment with beta-blockers are...

1. reducing the load on the heart and lowering peripheral blood pressure
2. decreasing the heart rate
3. decreasing the force of contraction of the heart

52

a change or changes that occur in the synaptic organization of the brain due to aging are...

1. the number of dendritic branches decreases
2. synaptic connection are lost
3. the rate of neurotransmitter production declines