Flashcards in Chapter 19: Blood Deck (59)
venipuncture is a common sampling technique because...
1. superficial veins are easy to locate
2. the walls of the veins are thinner than the walls of the arteries
3. the blood pressure in veins is relatively low
in adults, the circulatory blood...
1. provides nutrients, oxygen, and chemical instructions for cells
2. is a mechanism for waste removal for cells
3. transports special cells to defend tissues from infection and disease
an arterial puncture generally drawn from the radial artery at the wrist or the brachial artery at the elbow would primarily be used for...
checking efficiency of gas exchange at the lungs
the blood transports specialized cells that defend peripheral tissues from...
infection and disease
the formed elements of the blood consist of...
red and white blood cells, and platelets
the primary functions of the blood are...
1. transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones
2. regulation of pH and ion compostition of interstitial fluids
3. defense against toxins and pathogens
blood transports dissolved gases, bringing oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carrying carbon dioxide from...
the tissues to the lungs
the "patrol agents" in the blood that defend the body against toxins and pathogens are...
white blood cells and antibodies
the best laboratory procedure for obtaining blood to determine the hemoglobin level is...
puncturing the tip of the finger
blood temperature is roughly _________, and the blood pH averages ________.
38 C; 7.4
an example of a true statement...
Plasma contributes approximately 55 percent of the volume of whole blood, and H2O accounts for 92 percent of the plasma volume
the three primary classes of plasma proteins are...
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
in addition to water and proteins, the plasma consists of...
electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes
loose connective tissue and cartilage contain a network of insoluble fibers, whereas plasma, a fluid connective tissue, contains...
circulating mature RBCs lack...
the important effects on RBCs due to their unusual shape are that it...
1. enables RBCs to form stacks
2. gives each RBCs a large surface-area-to-volume ratio
3. enables RBCs to bend and flex when entering small cappillaries and branches
the primary function of a mature red blood cell is...
transport of respiratory gases
the part of the hemoglobin molecule that directly interacts with oxygen is...
the iron ion
iron is necessary in the diet because it is involved with...
the iron extracted from heme molecules during hemoglobin recycling is stored in the protein-iron complexes...
ferritin and hemosiderin
during RBC recycling, each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to...
the primary site of erythropoiesis in the adult is the...
erythropoietin appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues, especially the kidneys, are exposed to...
low oxygen concentrations
addlutinogens are contained in the________, while the agglutins are found in the _________.
cell membrane of RBC; plasma
if you have type A blood, your plasma hold circulating ________ that will attack __________ erythrocytes.
anti-B agglutinins; Type B
a person with type O blood contains...
anti-A and anti-B agglutinins
the two types of agranular leukocytes found in the blood are...
monocytes and lymphocytes
based on their staining characteristics, the types of granular leukocytes found in the blood are...
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
the number of eosinophils increases dramitcally during....
an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection
basophils are specialized in that they...
contain histamine that exaggerates the inflammation response at the injury site
megakaryocytes are specialized cells of the bone marrow responsible for...
formulation of platelets
the rate of megakaryocyte activity and platelet formation is regulated by...
the process of hemostasis include five phases. the correct order after injury:
4. clot retraction
the extrinsic pathway involved in blood clotting involves the release of...
tissue factor (TF)
what relationship reflects events of the "common pathway"?
prothrombinase catalyzes the creation of thrombin, which then catalyzes creation of fibrin
the factor that stimulates the production of neurophils, eosinophils, and basophils is...
if blood comprises 7 percent of the body weight in kilograms, how many liters of blood there be in an individual who weigh 85 kg?
the reason liver disorders can alter the composition and functional properties of the blood is because the...
liver is the primary source of plasma proteins
a condition that generally results from the accelerated platelet formation in response to infection, inflammation, or cancer is...
the fate of iron after hemoglobin breakdown occurs as follows:
1. iron->bloodstream->transferrin->new hemoglobin
3. iron->bloodstream->transferrin->stored ferritin and hemosiderin
a condition in which a drifting blood clot becomes stuck in a blood vessel, blocking circulation, is called an...
typically, one microliter of blood contains_______ erythrocytes.
in a mature RBC, energy is obtained exclusively by anaerobic respiration...
if aggulutinogen "B" meets with agglutinin "anti-A," the result would be...
no aggultination would occur
the precursor of all blood cells in the human body is the...
reticulocytes are nucleated immature cells that develop into mature...
the blood cells that may originate in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes as wells as in the bone marrow are the...
rh-negative blood indicates the...
absence of the Rh agglutinogen
in hemolytic disease of the newborn, the...
mother's agglutinins cross the placental barrier and destroy fetal red blood cells
circulating leukocytes represent a small fraction of the total population, since most WBCs are found in peripheral tissues.
a typical microliter of blood contains ________ leukocytes.
under "normal" conditions, neutrophils compromise _________ of the circulatory white blood cells.
leukemia is a condition characterized by...
extremely elevated levels of circulating white blood cells
platelets are unique formed elements of the blood because they...
are cytoplasmic fragments rather than individual cells
fibrinolysis involves a process that begins with activation of...
the proenzyme plasminogen, which leads to the production of plasmin
a vitamin K deficiency in the body will eventually cause...
a breakdown of the common pathway, deactivating the clotting system
a vitamin B12 deficiency results in the type of anemia known as...
an anemia resulting from the production of an abnormal form of hemoglobin results in a condition known as...
sickle cell anemia