Chapter 19: Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Blood Deck (59)
1

venipuncture is a common sampling technique because...

1. superficial veins are easy to locate
2. the walls of the veins are thinner than the walls of the arteries
3. the blood pressure in veins is relatively low

2

in adults, the circulatory blood...

1. provides nutrients, oxygen, and chemical instructions for cells
2. is a mechanism for waste removal for cells
3. transports special cells to defend tissues from infection and disease

3

an arterial puncture generally drawn from the radial artery at the wrist or the brachial artery at the elbow would primarily be used for...

checking efficiency of gas exchange at the lungs

4

the blood transports specialized cells that defend peripheral tissues from...

infection and disease

5

the formed elements of the blood consist of...

red and white blood cells, and platelets

6

the primary functions of the blood are...

1. transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones
2. regulation of pH and ion compostition of interstitial fluids
3. defense against toxins and pathogens

7

blood transports dissolved gases, bringing oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carrying carbon dioxide from...

the tissues to the lungs

8

the "patrol agents" in the blood that defend the body against toxins and pathogens are...

white blood cells and antibodies

9

the best laboratory procedure for obtaining blood to determine the hemoglobin level is...

puncturing the tip of the finger

10

blood temperature is roughly _________, and the blood pH averages ________.

38 C; 7.4

11

an example of a true statement...

Plasma contributes approximately 55 percent of the volume of whole blood, and H2O accounts for 92 percent of the plasma volume

12

the three primary classes of plasma proteins are...

albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

13

in addition to water and proteins, the plasma consists of...

electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes

14

loose connective tissue and cartilage contain a network of insoluble fibers, whereas plasma, a fluid connective tissue, contains...

dissolved proteins

15

circulating mature RBCs lack...

1. mitochondria
2. ribosomes
3. nuclei

16

the important effects on RBCs due to their unusual shape are that it...

1. enables RBCs to form stacks
2. gives each RBCs a large surface-area-to-volume ratio
3. enables RBCs to bend and flex when entering small cappillaries and branches

17

the primary function of a mature red blood cell is...

transport of respiratory gases

18

the part of the hemoglobin molecule that directly interacts with oxygen is...

the iron ion

19

iron is necessary in the diet because it is involved with...

hemoglobin production

20

the iron extracted from heme molecules during hemoglobin recycling is stored in the protein-iron complexes...

ferritin and hemosiderin

21

during RBC recycling, each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to...

biliverdin

22

the primary site of erythropoiesis in the adult is the...

myeloid tissue

23

erythropoietin appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues, especially the kidneys, are exposed to...

low oxygen concentrations

24

addlutinogens are contained in the________, while the agglutins are found in the _________.

cell membrane of RBC; plasma

25

if you have type A blood, your plasma hold circulating ________ that will attack __________ erythrocytes.

anti-B agglutinins; Type B

26

a person with type O blood contains...

anti-A and anti-B agglutinins

27

the two types of agranular leukocytes found in the blood are...

monocytes and lymphocytes

28

based on their staining characteristics, the types of granular leukocytes found in the blood are...

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

29

the number of eosinophils increases dramitcally during....

an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection

30

basophils are specialized in that they...

contain histamine that exaggerates the inflammation response at the injury site

31

megakaryocytes are specialized cells of the bone marrow responsible for...

formulation of platelets

32

the rate of megakaryocyte activity and platelet formation is regulated by...

1. thrombopoietin
2. interleukin-6
3. multi-CSF

33

the process of hemostasis include five phases. the correct order after injury:

1. vascular
2. platelet
3. coagulation
4. clot retraction
5. fibrinolysis

34

the extrinsic pathway involved in blood clotting involves the release of...

tissue factor (TF)

35

what relationship reflects events of the "common pathway"?

prothrombinase catalyzes the creation of thrombin, which then catalyzes creation of fibrin

36

the factor that stimulates the production of neurophils, eosinophils, and basophils is...

G-CSF

37

if blood comprises 7 percent of the body weight in kilograms, how many liters of blood there be in an individual who weigh 85 kg?

5.95

38

the reason liver disorders can alter the composition and functional properties of the blood is because the...

liver is the primary source of plasma proteins

39

a condition that generally results from the accelerated platelet formation in response to infection, inflammation, or cancer is...

thrombocytosis

40

the fate of iron after hemoglobin breakdown occurs as follows:

1. iron->bloodstream->transferrin->new hemoglobin
2. heme->biliverdin->bilirubin->liver->bile->excreted
3. iron->bloodstream->transferrin->stored ferritin and hemosiderin

41

a condition in which a drifting blood clot becomes stuck in a blood vessel, blocking circulation, is called an...

embolism

42

typically, one microliter of blood contains_______ erythrocytes.

5.2 million

43

in a mature RBC, energy is obtained exclusively by anaerobic respiration...

true

44

if aggulutinogen "B" meets with agglutinin "anti-A," the result would be...

no aggultination would occur

45

the precursor of all blood cells in the human body is the...

hemoctyoblast

46

reticulocytes are nucleated immature cells that develop into mature...

erythrocytes

47

the blood cells that may originate in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes as wells as in the bone marrow are the...

lymphocytes

48

rh-negative blood indicates the...

absence of the Rh agglutinogen

49

in hemolytic disease of the newborn, the...

mother's agglutinins cross the placental barrier and destroy fetal red blood cells

50

circulating leukocytes represent a small fraction of the total population, since most WBCs are found in peripheral tissues.

true

51

a typical microliter of blood contains ________ leukocytes.

6000-9000

52

under "normal" conditions, neutrophils compromise _________ of the circulatory white blood cells.

50-70 percent

53

leukemia is a condition characterized by...

extremely elevated levels of circulating white blood cells

54

platelets are unique formed elements of the blood because they...

are cytoplasmic fragments rather than individual cells

55

fibrinolysis involves a process that begins with activation of...

the proenzyme plasminogen, which leads to the production of plasmin

56

a vitamin K deficiency in the body will eventually cause...

a breakdown of the common pathway, deactivating the clotting system

57

a vitamin B12 deficiency results in the type of anemia known as...

pernicious

58

an anemia resulting from the production of an abnormal form of hemoglobin results in a condition known as...

sickle cell anemia

59

the activity of the common pathway stimulates both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by...

a positive feedback loop that accelerates the clotting process