Chapter 12- Neural Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12- Neural Tissue Deck (50)
0

The two major anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system are the...

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

1

The central nervous system consists of the...

Brain and spinal cord

2

The primary functions of the nervous system include...

1. Providing sensation of the internal and external environment
2. Integrating sensory information
3. Regulating and controlling peripheral structures and systems

3

Neurons are responsible for...

Information transfer and processing in the nervous system

4

The region of a neuron with voltage gated sodium channels is the...

Axon

5

Neurons are classified on the basis of their structure as...

Anaxonic, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar

6

Neurons are classified on the basis of their function as...

Motor, sensory, and autonomic

7

Sensory neurons are responsible for carrying impulses...

To the central nervous system

8

Efferent pathways consist of axons that carry impulses...

Away from the central nervous system

9

The two major cell types in neural tissue...

Neurons and neuroglia

10

The types of glial cells in the central nervous system are...

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells

11

The neuroglia that play a role in structural organization by tying clusters of axons together are the...

Oligodendrocytes

12

Depolarization of the membrane will shift the membrane potential toward...

0 mV

13

The resting membrane potential of a typical neuron is...

-70 mV

14

If resting membrane potential is -70 mV and the threshold is -60 mV, a membrane potential of -62 mV will...

Not produce an action potential

15

An action potential is triggered when...

Local current reaches a voltage that opens voltage gated Na+ channels in the axon hillock

16

If resting membrane potential is -70 mV, a hyper polarized membrane is...

-80 mV

17

A node along the axon represents an area where there is...

An absence of myelin

18

The larger the diameter of the axon, the...

Faster an action potential will be conducted

19

The two most important factors that determine the rate of action potential propagation are the...

Presence or absence of a myelin sheath and the diameter of the axon

20

The reasons that active neurons need ATP is to support the...

1. Synthesis, release, and recycling of neurotransmitter molecules
2. Recovery from action potentials
3. Movement of materials to and from the soma via axoplasmic flow

21

At an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are locked together at...

Gap junctions

22

Chemical synapses differ from electric synapses, because chemical synapses...

Involve a neurotransmitter

23

The effect of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic membrane depends on the...

Properties of the receptor

24

Exocytosis and the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is triggered by...

Calcium ions flooding into the axoplasm

25

The normal stimulus for neurotransmitter release is the depolarization of the synaptic terminal by the...

Arrival of an action potential

26

Compounds that alter presynaptic or postsynaptic function, thereby affecting information processing, are...

Neuromodulators

27

Compounds that have an indirect effect on membrane potential work through intermediaries known as...

Second messengers

28

An excitatory postsynaptic potential is...

A depolarization produced by the arrival of a neurotransmitter

29

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential is a...

Graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane

30

Graded potentials that develop in the postsynaptic membrane in response to a neurotransmitter are...

Postsynaptic potentials

31

The addition of stimuli occurring in rapid succession is...

Temporal summation

32

The anatomical division of the nervous system responsible for integrating, processing, and coordinating sensory information is the...

Central nervous system

33

Interneurons are responsible for...

Analysis of sensory inputs and coordination of motor inputs

34

A long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an action potential is the...

Axon

35

The type of cells that surround the nerve cell bodies on peripheral ganglia are...

Satellite cells

36

Schwann cells are glial cells responsible for...

Producing a myelin layer around peripheral axons

37

When a barrier prevents the movement of opposite charges toward one another, an...

Potential difference may exist

38

The membranous wrapping of electrical insulation, called myelin, around an axon is responsible for...

Increasing the speed at which an action potential travels along an axon

39

The simplest form of information processing in the nervous system is...

The integration of stimuli at the level of the individual cell

40

During the relative refractory period, a larger than normal depolarizing stimulus can...

Initiate a second action potential

41

Saltatory propagation conducts impulses along an axon...

Five to seven times faster than contiguous propagation

42

In type C fibers, action potentials are conducted at speeds of approximately...

2 mph

43

The larger the diameter of the axon, the...

Faster the rate of transmission

44

Facilitation in the neurons transmembrane potential refers to...

A shift closer to threshold

45

Sensory neurons that provide information about the external environment through the sense of sight, smell, hearing, and touch are called...

Exteroceptors

46

The main functional difference between the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system is that the activities of the ANS are...

Primarily involuntary or under automatic control

47

EPSPs and IPSPs reflect the activation of different types of chemically gated channels, producing...

Opposing effects on the transmembrane potential

48

If one EPSP depolarizers the initial segment from a resting potential of -70 mV to -65 mV, and threshold is at -60 mV, an...

Action potential will not be generated

49

An example of presynaptic facilitation is...

Calcium channels remaining open for a longer period, due to the influence of axoaxonic synapse activity, thus increasing the amount of neurotransmitter released