Flashcards in Chapter 32 - Epidemiology, Statistics, Risk Assessment Deck (35):

0

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The statistical test used to determine whether there is an association between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer by comparing the number of cases of cancer in smokers vs. nonsmokers to sm/nsm w/o cancer would be...

A. One-tailed t-test

B. Two-tailed t-test

C. ANOVA

D. Chi square test

### D. Chi square test

1

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Incidence rate is...

A. Number of subjects with an abnormality at a specified time

B. Number of subjects developing an abnormality per population within a specific time period

C. Number of subjects with an abnormality divided by the number of subjects without the abnormality

D. Number of subjects with an abnormality divided by the total number of subjects

### B. Number of subjects developing an abnormality per population within a specific time period

2

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The statistical test used to determine whether 3 different doses of a new antihypertensive medicine work better than placebo would be...

A. Two-tailed t-test

B. Paired t-test

C. ANOVA

D. Chi-square test

### C. ANOVA

3

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The statistical test used to determine whether rheumatoid arthritis has an effect on the urinary excretion of X would be...

A. 2 sample t-test

B. Paired t-test

C. ANOVA

D. Chi-square test

### A. 2 sample t-test

4

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Three standard deviations on either side of the mean account for what percent of the population?

A. 90%

B. 95%

C. 97%

D. Greater than 99%

### D. Greater than 99%

5

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The quantity that assesses uncertainty in a population mean is...

A. SD

B. SEM

C. F-statistic

D. p value

### B. SEM

6

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Statistical tests for continuous data include all of the following except...

A. chi-square

B. paired t-test

C. 2 sample t-test

D. ANOVA

### A. Chi-squared test

7

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Data that is measured on an arithmetic scale is considered to be...

A. Nominal

B. Ordinal

C. Continuous

D. Integer

### C. Continuous

8

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The square root of a sample's variance is...

A. SD

B. SEM

C. F-statistic

D. p value

### A. SD

9

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The F stastistic is used in...

A. Chi-square test

B. ANOVA

C. 2 sample t-test

D. Paired t-test

### B. ANOVA

10

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The probability of observing a particular study result by chance alone when the null hypothesis is really true is...

A. T-value

B. N value

C. Relative risk

D. p value

### D. p value

11

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A study in which a disease-free group exposed to X is followed prospectively to determine whether a disease occurs at a different rate compared to a nonexposed group is...

A. Case-controlled study

B. Phase 1 clinical trial

C. Cohort study

D. Phase 4 clinical trial

### C. Cohort study

12

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A retrospective study that compares a group of subjects with a disease to a group of subjects without a disease is...

A. Case-controlled study

B. phase 2 clinical trial

C. Matched case-control study

D. All of the above

### A. Case-controlled study

13

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The relative risk is calculated from the results of...

A. Case-controlled study

B. cohort study

C. Matched case-control study

D. All of the above

### B. cohort study

14

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The odds ratio is an estimate of the...

A. p value

B. confidence interval

C. Relative risk

D. F-statistic

### C. Relative risk

15

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The rate of an event in an exposed population minus the rate in a nonexposed population is called...

A. Absolute risk

B. relative risk

C. Attributable risk

D. Real risk

### C. Attributable risk

16

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The disease rate in an exposed group divided by the disease rate in an unexposed group is called...

A. Odds ratio

B. relative risk

C. Absolute risk

D. Prevalence

### B. relative risk

17

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The null hypothesis means...

A. There is no difference between the groups

B. there is a certain probability of a difference between the groups

C. There is a difference between the groups

D. None of the above

### A. There is no difference between the groups

18

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A type I error...

A. Rejects the null hypothesis when the groups are really different

B. misses a real difference between two groups

C. Does not reject the null hypothesis when the groups really are different

D. Rejects the null hypothesis when the groups are really different

### D. Rejects the null hypothesis when the groups are really different

19

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A systematic difference other than treatment between two groups is called...

A. Chance

B. confidence level

C. Randomness

D. Bias

### D. Bias

20

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The probability that there is not a type II error is called...

A. Power

B. degree of freedom

C. Sensitivity

D. Robustness

### A. Power

21

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Body weights of 21 yr old males will follow a ...... distribution

A. Normal

B. bimodal

C. Skewed

D. Ranked

### A. Normal

22

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A parameter that shows the degree of statistical relationship between the variables in two groups is called...

A. Power

B. robustness

C. Correlation coefficient

D. Specificity

### C. Correlation coefficient

23

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An analysis of several separate studies to produce a single result is called...

A. Linear regression analysis

B. least squares analysis

C. Monte Carlo analysis

D. Meta-analysis

### D. Meta-analysis

24

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True positives divided by the sum of true positives and false negatives is...

A. Positive predictive value

B. sensitivity

C. Negative predictive value

D. Specificity

### B. sensitivity

25

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True negatives divided by the sum of false positives and true negatives is...

A. Positive predictive value

B. sensitivity

C. Negative predictive value

D. Specificity

### D. Specificity

26

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True positives divided by the sum of true positives and false negatives is...

A. Positive predictive value

B. sensitivity

C. Negative predictive value

D. Specificity

### A. Positive predictive value

27

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True negatives divided by the sum of false negatives and true negatives is...

A. Positive predictive value

B. sensitivity

C. Negative predictive value

D. Specificity

### C. Negative predictive value

28

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A factor that is asso. w/ the exposure of interest and is also an independent cause of the disease being studied is called a/an...

A. Independent variable

B. dependent variable

C. False assumption

D. Confounder

### D. Confounder

29

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The ratio of observed to expected deaths in a study is called...

A. Proportionalized mortality ratio

B. standardized mortality ratio

C. Morbidity ratio

D. Life expectancy ratio

### B. standardized mortality ratio

30

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On a dose-response curve, the highest nonstatistically significant dose tested is called...

A. LOAEL

B. NOAEL

C. reference dose

D. Point of departure

### B. NOAEL

31

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On a dose-response curve, the lowest dose tested with a statistically significant effect is...

A. LOAEL

B. NOAEL

C. Reference dose

D. Point of departure

### A. LOAEL

32

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The epidemiological study design most suitable for the study of rare diseases is...

A. Clinical trial

B. cohort

C. Case control

D. Cross sectional

### C. Case control

33

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Assessing the chemical structure of a toxic molecule to predict toxicity in other similar models is called...

A. Molecular orbital correlations

B. steriochemical predictiveness

C. Quantum toxicology

D. Structure-activity relationship

### D. Structure-activity relationship

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