Flashcards in Chapter 37 - Obstetrics and Care of the Newborn Deck (82):
the female gonads or sex glands. there are two, one on each side of the uterus, in the upper portion of the pelvic cavity.
thin, flexible structures that extend from the uterus to the ovaries. also called the uterine tubes.
responsible for secreting the hormones estrogen and progesterone and for development and release of the mature egg necessary for reproduction.
the mature egg that is released from the ovary each month is referred to as the _______.
______ and _____ are hormones that prepare the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum and maintain the uterus during pregnancy
estrogen and progesterone
an organ of the female reproductive system for containing and nourishing the embryo and fetus from the time the fertilized egg is implanted to the time of birth
the child in the uterus form the third month of pregnancy to birth: prior to that time it is called an embryo
the neck of the uterus
a plug of mucus that seals the uterine opening during pregnancy, preventing contamination from entering the uterus. the plug is discharged when the cervix starts to dilate, or open, and appears as pink tinged mucus in the vaginal discharge. the expulsion of the plug signals the first stage of labor and is known as the _______.
the placenta and other tissues that are expelled after the delivery of the fetus
the fetal organ through which the fetus exchanges nourishment and waste products during pregnancy
an extension of the placenta through which the fetus receives nourishment while in the uterus
a thin, transparent membrane that forms the sac that holds the fetus suspended in amniotic fluid
the passageway through which the fetus is delivered. the lower part of the birth canal.
the top portion of the uterus is referred to as the ______, the middle portion is the _____ or _____, and the narrow tapered neck is the ____.
body or corpus
the uterine wall is made up of three layers:
the inner most lining of the uterus. estrogen and progesterone build up in the lining for implantation of a fertilized ovum. if ovum in not fertilized or does not implant, the lining is shed during the menstrual period.
thick middle layer of smooth muscle in the uterus. the smooth muscle contracts from the fundus downard during labor to expel the fetus.
a serous membrane that partially covers the corpus of the uterus
wavelike movement from muscular contraction
the umbilical cord contains one vein and two arteries in a spiral arrangement that is covered by a protective substance called ________.
the first 14 days after conception are called the ________ stage
the _______ stage is from day 15 to 8 weeks
the ______ stage begins at 8 weeks and ends with the delivery of the baby.
pregnancy is also referred to as _________
age that refers to the age of the fetus in weeks from the time of fertilization of the ovum through delivery
each 3-month period of the approximately 9-month pregnancy is referred to as a ________
the period of pregnancy prior to the onset of labor
delivery of the fetus and placenta before the fetus is viable (before it can live on its own). viability is usually considered to begin after the 20th week of pregnancy.
spontaneous abortion or miscarriage
cramplike lower abd pain similar to labor
moderate to severe vag bleeding
passage of tissue of blood clots
abnormal implantation of the placenta over or near the opening of the cervix (the os)
there are three types of placenta previa:
type of placenta previa where the placenta completely covers the os. blocking the birth canal and can prevent delivery of the baby. as the cervix dilates and effaces (thins), significant bleeding may occur.
total placenta previa
type of placenta previa where the placenta covers the os of the cervix partially, but not completely. may still obstruct the delivery of the baby.
partial placenta previa
type of placenta previa where the placenta is implanted near the neck of the cervix. when the cervix effaces (thins) and dilates, it may cause the placenta to partially tear.
marginal placenta previa
separation of the placenta in abruptio placentae causes two major problems:
poor gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between fetus and placenta
severe maternal blood loss
vag bleeding w/ constant abd pain
abd pain due to muscle spasms of the uterus
pain may be in lower back
uterine contractions are usually present
abd is tender on palpation
vag bleeding may be sever, minimal or absent depending on the location of the head of the fetus
s/s of hypovolemic shock present
a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus, typically in a Fallopian tube.
Seizures that occur during a woman's pregnancy or shortly after giving birth.
A potentially dangerous pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure.
blood pressure in a pregnant woman that is greater than 140/90 mmHg on two or more occasions at 6 hrs apart.
typically a third-trimester complication that occurs when the weight of the fetus compresses the inferior vena cava when the pt is in a supine position
supine hypotenstive syndrome
refers to pregnancy
refers to a woman who has given birth
normal labor can be divided into three stages:
intermittent weak contractions of the uterus occurring during pregnancy.
stage of labor from the beginning of contractions to complete cervical dilation. during this first and longest stage, the cervix becomes fully dilated at 10cm, which allows the infants head to progress from the body of the uterus to the birth canal.
first stage: dilation
stage of labor from complete cervical dilation to delivery of the baby. during this stage, the infant moves through the vagina (the birth canal) and is born.
stage two: expulsion
the area of skin between the vagina and the anus
the stage in delivery when the fetal head presents at the vagina
stage of labor from that begins following the delivery of the baby and ends with the expulsion of the placenta. during this stage, the placenta separates from the uterine wall and is expelled from the uterus.
third stage: placental
There are three cases in which you must assist in the delivery of the infant:
If you have no suitable transportation
If the hospital or physician cannot be reached due to bad weather, a natural disaster, or some other kind of catastrophe
If delivery is imminent
When the umbilical cord is around the infants neck, it's referred to as a __________.
the dark green substance forming the first feces of a newborn infant.
A naturally occurring hormone that is released from the posterior pituitary gland. It causes the smooth muscle of the uterus to contract and tone up. Toning the uterine muscle will cause the vessels to constrict, and the bleeding will cease.
The period of time from the onset of labor to the delivery of the infant
After the amniotic sac ruptures, the umbilical cord rather than the head, may be the first part presenting at the vaginal opening. This is called a _________.
the period of time from the onset of labor to the actual delivery of the neonate.
when the umbilical cord, rather than the head of the fetus, is the first part to protrude from the vagina
a common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or both lower extremities are low in the uterus and are the first to be delivered
when one are or one leg is the first to protrude from the birth canal, it is considered a __________.
when amniotic fluid changes from a clear fluid to a greenish or brownish yellow. which is an indication that the fetus experienced a hypoxic event
an infant weighting less than 5 lbs, or an infant born before its 38th week of development, is defined as a ______.
gestation of the fetus that extends beyond 42 weeks.
condition that occurs during pregnancy when gestation of the fetus extends beyond 42 weeks, leading to reduced oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus. at which point the placenta begins to decline
birth of the fetus after less than 3 hrs of labor
labor that occurs after the 20th but prior to the 37th week of gestation
spontaneous rupture of the amniotic sac prior to the onset of true labor and before the end of the 37th week.
premature rupture of membranes (PROM)
abnormal delivery when the fetal shoulders are larger than the fetal head and the head delivers but the shoulders are caught between the symphysis pubis and the sacrum
position of mother during shoulder dystocia where she lies on her back with her knees drawn up as close to her chest as possible which move the sympysis pubis anteriorly and superiorly and drops the sacrum, creating a larger opening for delivery of the shoulders
refers to the period following delivery
true labor contractions
2- to 3- minute intervals
30-90 second duration
the loss of greater than 500mL of blood following delivery of the infant. the most common cause if failure of the uterus to regain its muscle tone.
apgar score - appearance
0 - cyanotic/pale
1 - blue hands/feet with pink core
2 - extremities/trunk pink
apgar score - pulse
0 - no pulse
1 - hr under 100
2 - hr over 100
apgar score - grimace (reflex irritability)
0 - no reflexive activity to stimulation
1 - only some facial grimace
2 - stimulation causes grimace and cough, sneeze, or cry
what does APGAR stand for
apgar score - activity
0 - limp
1 - some flexion
2 - actively moving