Chapter 37 - Obstetrics and Care of the Newborn Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 37 - Obstetrics and Care of the Newborn > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 37 - Obstetrics and Care of the Newborn Deck (82):
1

the female gonads or sex glands. there are two, one on each side of the uterus, in the upper portion of the pelvic cavity.

ovaries

2

thin, flexible structures that extend from the uterus to the ovaries. also called the uterine tubes.

fallopian tubes

3

responsible for secreting the hormones estrogen and progesterone and for development and release of the mature egg necessary for reproduction.

ovary

4

the mature egg that is released from the ovary each month is referred to as the _______.

ovum

5

______ and _____ are hormones that prepare the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum and maintain the uterus during pregnancy

estrogen and progesterone

6

an organ of the female reproductive system for containing and nourishing the embryo and fetus from the time the fertilized egg is implanted to the time of birth

uterus

7

the child in the uterus form the third month of pregnancy to birth: prior to that time it is called an embryo

fetus

8

the neck of the uterus

cervix

9

a plug of mucus that seals the uterine opening during pregnancy, preventing contamination from entering the uterus. the plug is discharged when the cervix starts to dilate, or open, and appears as pink tinged mucus in the vaginal discharge. the expulsion of the plug signals the first stage of labor and is known as the _______.

bloody show

10

the placenta and other tissues that are expelled after the delivery of the fetus

afterbirth

11

the fetal organ through which the fetus exchanges nourishment and waste products during pregnancy

placenta

12

an extension of the placenta through which the fetus receives nourishment while in the uterus

umbilical cord

13

a thin, transparent membrane that forms the sac that holds the fetus suspended in amniotic fluid

amniotic sac

14

the passageway through which the fetus is delivered. the lower part of the birth canal.

vagina

15

the top portion of the uterus is referred to as the ______, the middle portion is the _____ or _____, and the narrow tapered neck is the ____.

fundus

body or corpus

cervix

16

the uterine wall is made up of three layers:

endometrium

myometrium

perimetrium

17

the inner most lining of the uterus. estrogen and progesterone build up in the lining for implantation of a fertilized ovum. if ovum in not fertilized or does not implant, the lining is shed during the menstrual period.

endometrium

18

thick middle layer of smooth muscle in the uterus. the smooth muscle contracts from the fundus downard during labor to expel the fetus.

myometrium

19

a serous membrane that partially covers the corpus of the uterus

perimetrium

20

wavelike movement from muscular contraction

peristalsis

21

the umbilical cord contains one vein and two arteries in a spiral arrangement that is covered by a protective substance called ________.

wharton jelly

22

the first 14 days after conception are called the ________ stage

pre-embryonic

23

the _______ stage is from day 15 to 8 weeks

embryonic

24

the ______ stage begins at 8 weeks and ends with the delivery of the baby.

fetal

25

pregnancy is also referred to as _________

gestation

26

age that refers to the age of the fetus in weeks from the time of fertilization of the ovum through delivery

gestational age

27

each 3-month period of the approximately 9-month pregnancy is referred to as a ________

trimester

28

first trimester:

months

weeks

1-3 mo

1-12 weeks

29

second trimester:

months

weeks

4-6mo

13-27 weeks

30

third trimester:

months

weeks

7-9 mo

28-40 weeks

31

the period of pregnancy prior to the onset of labor

antepartum

32

delivery of the fetus and placenta before the fetus is viable (before it can live on its own). viability is usually considered to begin after the 20th week of pregnancy.

spontaneous abortion or miscarriage

33

s/s:

cramplike lower abd pain similar to labor

moderate to severe vag bleeding

passage of tissue of blood clots

spontaneous abortion

34

abnormal implantation of the placenta over or near the opening of the cervix (the os)

placenta previa

35

there are three types of placenta previa:

total

partial

marginal

36

type of placenta previa where the placenta completely covers the os. blocking the birth canal and can prevent delivery of the baby. as the cervix dilates and effaces (thins), significant bleeding may occur.

total placenta previa

37

type of placenta previa where the placenta covers the os of the cervix partially, but not completely. may still obstruct the delivery of the baby.

partial placenta previa

38

type of placenta previa where the placenta is implanted near the neck of the cervix. when the cervix effaces (thins) and dilates, it may cause the placenta to partially tear.

marginal placenta previa

39

separation of the placenta in abruptio placentae causes two major problems:

poor gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between fetus and placenta

severe maternal blood loss

40

s/s:
vag bleeding w/ constant abd pain

abd pain due to muscle spasms of the uterus

pain may be in lower back

uterine contractions are usually present

abd is tender on palpation

vag bleeding may be sever, minimal or absent depending on the location of the head of the fetus

s/s of hypovolemic shock present

abruptio placentae

41

a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus, typically in a Fallopian tube.

ectopic pregnancy

42

Seizures that occur during a woman's pregnancy or shortly after giving birth.

eclampsia

43

A potentially dangerous pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure.

preeclampsia

44

blood pressure in a pregnant woman that is greater than 140/90 mmHg on two or more occasions at 6 hrs apart.

pregnancy-induced hypertension

45

typically a third-trimester complication that occurs when the weight of the fetus compresses the inferior vena cava when the pt is in a supine position

supine hypotenstive syndrome

46

refers to pregnancy

gravida

47

refers to a woman who has given birth

para

48

normal labor can be divided into three stages:

dilation

expulsion

placental

49

intermittent weak contractions of the uterus occurring during pregnancy.

braxton-hicks contractions

50

stage of labor from the beginning of contractions to complete cervical dilation. during this first and longest stage, the cervix becomes fully dilated at 10cm, which allows the infants head to progress from the body of the uterus to the birth canal.

first stage: dilation

51

stage of labor from complete cervical dilation to delivery of the baby. during this stage, the infant moves through the vagina (the birth canal) and is born.

stage two: expulsion

52

the area of skin between the vagina and the anus

perineum

53

the stage in delivery when the fetal head presents at the vagina

crowning

54

stage of labor from that begins following the delivery of the baby and ends with the expulsion of the placenta. during this stage, the placenta separates from the uterine wall and is expelled from the uterus.

third stage: placental

55

There are three cases in which you must assist in the delivery of the infant:

If you have no suitable transportation

If the hospital or physician cannot be reached due to bad weather, a natural disaster, or some other kind of catastrophe

If delivery is imminent

56

When the umbilical cord is around the infants neck, it's referred to as a __________.

Nuchal cord

57

the dark green substance forming the first feces of a newborn infant.

Meconium

58

A naturally occurring hormone that is released from the posterior pituitary gland. It causes the smooth muscle of the uterus to contract and tone up. Toning the uterine muscle will cause the vessels to constrict, and the bleeding will cease.

Oxytocin

59

The period of time from the onset of labor to the delivery of the infant

Intrapartum

60

After the amniotic sac ruptures, the umbilical cord rather than the head, may be the first part presenting at the vaginal opening. This is called a _________.

Prolapsed cord

61

the period of time from the onset of labor to the actual delivery of the neonate.

intrapartum

62

when the umbilical cord, rather than the head of the fetus, is the first part to protrude from the vagina

prolapsed cord

63

a common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or both lower extremities are low in the uterus and are the first to be delivered

breech birth

64

when one are or one leg is the first to protrude from the birth canal, it is considered a __________.

limb presentation

65

when amniotic fluid changes from a clear fluid to a greenish or brownish yellow. which is an indication that the fetus experienced a hypoxic event

meconium staining

66

an infant weighting less than 5 lbs, or an infant born before its 38th week of development, is defined as a ______.

premature infant

67

gestation of the fetus that extends beyond 42 weeks.

posttern

68

condition that occurs during pregnancy when gestation of the fetus extends beyond 42 weeks, leading to reduced oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus. at which point the placenta begins to decline

postmaturity syndrome

69

birth of the fetus after less than 3 hrs of labor

precipitous delivery

70

labor that occurs after the 20th but prior to the 37th week of gestation

preterm labor

71

spontaneous rupture of the amniotic sac prior to the onset of true labor and before the end of the 37th week.

premature rupture of membranes (PROM)

72

abnormal delivery when the fetal shoulders are larger than the fetal head and the head delivers but the shoulders are caught between the symphysis pubis and the sacrum

shoulder dystocia

73

position of mother during shoulder dystocia where she lies on her back with her knees drawn up as close to her chest as possible which move the sympysis pubis anteriorly and superiorly and drops the sacrum, creating a larger opening for delivery of the shoulders

McRobert positioning

74

refers to the period following delivery

postpartum

75

true labor contractions

intervals/duration

2- to 3- minute intervals

30-90 second duration

76

the loss of greater than 500mL of blood following delivery of the infant. the most common cause if failure of the uterus to regain its muscle tone.

postpartum hemorrhage

77

apgar score - appearance

0

1

2

0 - cyanotic/pale

1 - blue hands/feet with pink core

2 - extremities/trunk pink

78

apgar score - pulse

0

1

2

0 - no pulse

1 - hr under 100

2 - hr over 100

79

apgar score - grimace (reflex irritability)

0

1

2

0 - no reflexive activity to stimulation

1 - only some facial grimace

2 - stimulation causes grimace and cough, sneeze, or cry

80

what does APGAR stand for

appearance

pulse

grimace

activity

respiration

81

apgar score - activity

0

1

2

0 - limp

1 - some flexion

2 - actively moving

82

apgar score - respiration

0

1

2

0 - no resp effort

1 - slow or irregular breathing

2 - good resp/strong cry

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):