Flashcards in Chapter 6 - The Middle Ages Deck (155)
How would ladies dress?
They would wear
➰long expensive silk dresses
➰strange looking headdresses which completely covered their hair
Who were the fighters or men-at-arms?
➰Fighters or men-at-arms were always ready to come to the lords aid at short notice
➰the men-at-arms consisted of;
-archers (armed with bows and arrows)
-watchmen (kept permanent watch from the castle towers)
-knights (fought horseback and the most trained and skilled)
Keypoints on lord and lady of the castle
-deer, wild boar, foxes
-foot or using birds of prey
-in charge of castle when lords away
-salting of foods
-upbringing of children
-ladies in waiting helped
-not their children-fosterage
-hawking with Falcons
How long could it take to become a fully trained knight?
Up to 15years
What were the stages of becoming a knight?
1) page (learnt good manners in a castle as servants. Read & write, basic fighting skills using wooden swords and shields )
2) squire (accompanied a fully trained knight, learnt to fight with real weapons, responsible knights horse and armour)
3) knight (about 7 years later if the squire was a skilful and rave warrior the king or local lord knighted him)
What had to take place for a squire to become a knight?
➰If the local lord or king thought he was skilful and brave as a squire they knighted him.
➰knighting of a squire at a ceremony called and accolade
➰squire spent night before in a church paying he would never fail his duties
➰dressed in a red robe, white tunic and a black jacket on the morning of the ceremony
➰knelt before the lord for his dubbing
➰lord tapped squires shoulders with a sword and then presented it to him
Did all knights have to go through such a long process to become a knight?
No. On some occasions a squire or other men-at-arms could be knighted then and there on the battlefield as a reward for an act of bravery
Describe the knights armour.
➰chain mail ( thousands of small iron rings linked together to make a shirt)
➰plate armour (metal plate)
➰helmet on their head and metal gloves called gaunlets
How did knights keep fit?
Participated in competitions called tournaments
Mock battles called mêlées
What was the most popular contest at the tournaments?
Jousting - two knights on horseback charged ta each other on either side of a fence called a tilt. The aim was to unseat your rival by knocking em off their horse with a large wooden pole called a lance
What was expected of a knight?
➰good manners known as chivalry
➰courteous to woman
What percentage of europeans lived in the country side in the middle ages?
Where did most people who lived in the countryside live?
Small villages owned by the local lord called manors
What was the lord who owned the manor called?
The lord of the manor
What was a demesne?
The lord usually rented most of his lands to the peasants in the village but the land he kept for his own private farm was known as a demesne
About how many huts did each manor have for peasants?
20 or 30
Where did the lord of the manor live?
The manor house. There was also a church
What was the open field system?
The open field system was when the peasants rented land form the lord. The lord would divide his three fields into one acre strips. The peasants were given separate strips of land from each field. This was to ensure that good and bad land was shared evenly. Crops were rotated fields each year. One field was called a fallow and left free of growing for a year to rest the land. The other fields were used for wheat and bailey
What was common land?
A small patch if land in the manor where peasants could graze their animals
What was the difference between a serf and a freeman?
A freeman and a serf were both peasants however a freeman was free to leave the village as he pleased and a serf was tied to the land. A serf could become a freeman by escaping and remaining at large for a year and a day
What is another word for a manor?
In return for land from the lord of the manor what do serfs do?
➰Work on the lord of the manors land
➰lend him animals
What did a serf have to do for the upkeep of the church?
Give a tenth of his crops to the parish priest- this is called the tithe
What work does a peasant in a manor do?
➰cute the grass
➰make hay for livestock
What type of work does a woman peasant do living in a manor village?
➰make butter and cheese
What did a male serf wear?
What did women peasants wear?
A woollen dress and a wimple (linen cloth wrapped around head and neck)
Describe a serfs cottage?
➰wattle and daub
➰no glass in windows
➰share a house with animals
What did peasants living in a manor eat?
Cooked on an open fire.
Bread, porridge and pottage (veg stew) washed down by beer