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Flashcards in Cold War Test Deck (425):

What dictated American foreign policy for next 15 years and how we deal with Soviets for the Cold War.?

Kennan X telegram


Who is fighting in the Cold War?



Why is Cold War cold?

It is not direct warfare between two


Why didn't the US and Soviets practice direct warfare

Both had Atomic bomb created tensions to make it too costly for direct fighting.


How long does the Cold War essentially go on?

About 45, until end of Berlin Wall in 1989


What were the two sides' government?



What is Democracy?

a political system of leaders that are elected by the people


What is Communism?

Limited republic controlled by the government


What does USSR stand for?

United Soviet Socialists Republics


How does voting work in Communism?

you must be a communist to vote and you vote on which communist you want to win


How is the Cold War an economically-waged war

It was waged by trades, embargoes, sanctions, tariffs, economic aid such as Marshall Plan


What are the two sides' economic systems?



What is capitalism?

private ownership of business, could own it in groups through stocks, but still private, people are in charge of their own money. In a capitalism system, largest supporter is government, they give subsidies to workers, taxes are determined by supply and demand at which they are to each other.


Describe supply and demand's relationship with prices.

-Great supply, little demand-low price
-Low supply, big demand-high price


Describe Socialism in the Soviet Union.

It is about equality and equal distribution, they have shared government ownership rather than stocks and private business, government doesn't own everything, but they determine price and what is produced for what companies they are in charge of.


Are both sides purely following the economic systems they use?



How is the Cold War Fought?

We fight through allies-we help out ours and they help out theirs, whoever has better team and more strength, there are conflicts between allies and it is war by proxy.


How was the Cold War a social war?

Use propaganda that promotes us and hates them. Programs of humanitarian aid were created as well. Also, you can use threats and arms to say we are stronger and distract them and keep them nervous about what may come.


How did the Berlin Wall relate to the Cold War?

People couldn't cross over to West Berlin or East Germany to go onto either side. Communists built wall to prevent people from coming in. Represents two sides to the war.


How are each sides' approaches at post-WWII conferences lead to the Cold War?

Conferences such as Potsdam as we tried to prevent WW3 and how Russia is trying to prepare for it.


How were the two nations pop culturally different?

Russian ballet vs. Rock and roll Music


How did the differences in religions lead to the Cold War?

Communism is religious-free, atheist, Marx prevented them from seeing change, Democracy says God is on our side, anyone can celebrate any religion.


How were WWII War Goals a Cause of the Cold War?

Soviets wanted immediate help through the opening of a second front on Germany. British and US went on to attack North Africa instead


How did the Soviets perceive the US in Operation Gymnast in WWII?

US and UK are in North Africa while Germans have gotten there, and then as a result of the German invasion, the Soviets do not like this. We are in irrelevant North Africa and they are in the thick of Germany, they want a second front and some help to fight Germans. Stalin is mad at other allies.


How did the US respond to the Soviets' perception of Gymnast?

Operation Round-up was not doable, we had to to Gymnast first because it was very practical.


How did the results of WWII start the Cold War?

Soviets are paying that price. Start comparing war debt, US loses 400K men, but Soviets lose 20M.


What was Communist Manifesto and Das Capital?

Created in 1948 in London by Marx and Angles, a German economist. It was the economic history of the world retraced, part history, part prophecy.


How many stages are in Communist Manifesto?



What were the 5 stages of Communist Manifesto?

Stage 1-Primitive Communism
Stage 2-Feudalism
Stage 3-Capitalism
Stage 4-Socialism
Stage 5-Pure Communism


What was described of Stage 1 in Communist Manifesto?

A good life takes a community to survive “community is in communist”, going back to hunting and gathering cultures, it takes a full community to provide, in primitive communism, everyone is essentially equal, social rank gets you a better spot, you need that community.


What described of Stage 2 in Communist Manifesto?

Develop agriculture, planned growth of food, we can now control supply, societies can be supplied, we settle into areas, land, individually owned, becomes symbol of wealth and power, start dividing into social classes


What were the 3 social classes in the age of feudalism?

95-98% peasants
Nobles (knights, others who support king, etc.)


In Stage 2 of Communist Manifesto, how did the top 2 groups control the third group?

God controlled everlasting life. Nobles controlled earth life.


Describe Capitalism as mentioned in Communist Manifesto.

1815-1830 at Industrial Revolution, starts changing society, money is power, not land anymore, you invest in business and money, you have more power, we want government out of things such as supply and demand, private ownership starts becoming of age.


What were the 2 social classes of Capitalism in the 1800s?

Bourgeois and Proletariat


Describe the bourgeois in Capitalist era.

rich owners, capitalists, have wealth and power.


Describe the proletariat in the Capitalist era.

are workers, 12-14 hours a day, very physically hard work, not very fun jobs, very hazardous jobs, maybe a small lunch, very fortunate if you get dinner or breakfast outside of work, you don't do job you get beaten or you get fired and get no food, these people have to share houses.


What does Marx predict of proletariats in Communist Manifesto?

Proletariats will be tired of it, and watching the rich people make money off your life, proletariat will rise up in a rebellion revolution and kill off the bourgeois.


How was Marx's proletariat prediction wrong?

Government puts in working laws, for working and money limitations and people feel a bit relieved. Healthcare benefits are around, and Unions and strikes are around, too. There are still very rich bourgeois around, but at least it is getting better enough for proletariats, so they end on the idea of revolting against the rich.


After things get better for the proletariats, what does Marx think will happen to economic society?

Marx thinks only people left will be proletarians. He thinks out of people will emerge Democratic socialism, working class will elect our leaders, and government will take over for bourgeois in owning business, all the government money turns into money for the citizens, and there are attempts to get people equal.


What is Pure Communism?

Total elimination of government, no ownership, everyone gets to do whatever they want.


What was the Atlantic Charter?

stated US and British goals
of Free trade and economic cooperation, no reparations


What do Soviets do after calling for total Communism?

demand land (buffer zone) and more security and reparations


What land masses did the Soviets demand during their demand for a buffer zone?

They demand control of Eastern Europe Czechloslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria.


Why do they want control of Eastern Europe?

They want to have a buffer zone in WWIII so they do not have to fight on their home land.


Why did the Soviets want reparations to them after WWII?

Their country is destroyed, they thought that Germans should pay back for their invasion that caused the Soviets to destroy their country and lost many people. They want revenge.


What did the US want to do after WWII, which is why they never told anyone to pay reparations?

US doesn't want to punish Germany, they forgive them so they can try to be peaceful.
-US doesn't want WWIII it is avoidable, we want these countries to rebuild, help them out, do what is right so another Versailles never happens again.
-You avoid WWIII by eliminating desperation and then this will eliminate WWIII.


Who wrote "Iron Curtain"

Winston Churchill


What is the Iron Curtain?

When the Soviets control Eastern Europe, when they took those countries into the USSR, this is the line between East and West.


Why do we hate Communism?

-no government, no money, total equality, sounds somewhat pretty fair, but we hate it because you do not get any say in anything.
-we think it is unrealistic for someone to have all power


Why must Communism be a worldwide deal?

It cannot coexist with another system because a country with no government can easily be conquered.


What is Marx's theory of anti-religious freedom?

-Marx thinks you change too much based on different religions on different people, he thinks life doesn’t matter.
-Marx doesn't want to accept religious beliefs because he just wants equality, and in the end, each person is supposed to just be nice, you have to tolerate it without religion.


How was Marx's theory about competition among humans economically impractical?

our human nature is being competitive and getting better than everyone. Marx’s theory was this would eliminate competition, but it really did not.


What was Marx's theory about economic human competition?

If you do better than someone, you don’t get recognition for it. You really don't need a big house, lots of cars and other expensive stuff.


What did STM write and what was it about?

Utopia, which was about Communism


How was Marx profiled as bad?

His violent revolution of the bourgeois being killed portrayed him as bad.


How did the US come out of WWII?

US had limited war dead (412K) and land was unharmed by war
-US comes out of WWII better than we went into WWII, GD is thing of past, people back to work, better equality for women and blacks, we are in great shape and rebuilt easily
-We also were liked by many nations after WWII


How did the Soviets come out of WWII?

Every big city/industrial area was bombed from scorched earth, total wreck.


How much did we downsize our army and how quickly did we do it in?

In 4 months, we went from 14M to 2M in the army


What was containment?

US foreign policy throughout Cold War to limit communist expansion anywhere in the world.


How did the US's positive attitude after WWII prompt the Soviets to make a move?

USSR is thinking next war is coming, so they need to get ready, and US is not paying too much attention, so Soviets invade in Eastern Europe to take over and use it to buffer the mainland; also they could make up for lost supplies and make tanks and other supplies to bolster their army.


Who proposed containment as our policy?

Kennan to Truman in the X article


How does Kennan warn us about initial success?

-Initial success leads to weak spots, it will keep pushing and pressure, so you must be constantly vigilant


How does Kennan warn us about pushing in the Soviets too hard?

Kennan says we always need to give them an out, let them walk away with some kind of victory, if you show them that respect, then they wont go to a fight, but if you put them in a corner and press the issue, then they will fight back.


How does Kennan describe the way containment should work?

Kennan uses containment to hold it to its boundaries, doesn't eliminate it, but it controls it.


What two countries are helped in the Truman Doctrine?

Turkey and Greece


What did the Truman Doctrine do to Turkey and Greece?

Gave them $400M, in military and economic aid


Why did we give money to Turkey and Greece?

This prevents Soviets from getting into Middle East and getting resources, also prevents them from being on the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea, now their only resource is near Vladivostok, so they do not have much water resources to have and we control them.


What does NATO stand for?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization


What is the function of NATO?

It is an alliance, of the Democracies of Western Europe, US and Canada.


What did the Marshall Plan do?

gave $17B economic aid to Europe to rebuild


Who was in charge of the Marshall Plan?

George Marshall


Why did we carry out the Marshall Plan?

Strong nations are peaceful nations, economically strong means politically strong, there are no radical ideas going on because they are being contained.


How was the Marshall Plan money distributed?

Axis powers get some of it, as well as Spain and Portugal (neutral nations)


Why was the USSR angry about the Marshall Plan?

USSR is mad because they won't give them anything, and some of the Marshall Plan was given to countries that made no sense to get benefits (Spain, Portugal, Axis Powers, etc.)


Why did the Soviets get no money from the Marshall Plan?

Because they are Communists and the US hates them and they were old allies.


What did NSC 68 stand for?

National Security Council and the 68 is the document, the number of pieces of advice they gave to the President.


What two groups came from NSC 68 and when was it formed?

In 1947, the National Security Council and CIA were formed.


What was the purpose of the CIA?

To gather information and intelligence, pass it on to NSC, come up with recommendations to the President about what he should do.


What was the main goal of the CIA and NSC working together?

They want to triple our defense budget, it is a show of force to tell Soviets we can respond and we are not weak, we can stop them, but Soviets get stronger, both sides build and that increases intensity between the two.


What was the first real challenge of the Cold War and why is it so important?

Berlin Airlft/Blockade. It is a testing point of our strategy of containment.


How did Berlin sit in exposed position before the Airlift?

The east-west blockade is a challenge for the allies vs. the Soviets. Berlin would get attacked either way, it just depended on who would attack it.


Why was ruling Berlin so key to the Soviets?

Berlin was the top central city in Europe at the time, so he who ruled Berlin basically ruled most of Europe.


How did Eisenhower think of controlling Berlin?

Eisenhower thinking more of a general, he didn't care who took Berlin, so he turned our forces south near Bavarian Africa and let Soviets go into Berlin.


Why did the Germans want us to go into Berlin, not Soviets?

We would not hit it as hard as the Soviets would.


When was the final attack on Germany by the Soviets and how did it play out?

April 16, 1945-Many Soviets died, but they still beat Germany.


What happened to Germany in July 1945?

All the allies enter Berlin, and then it would be agreed to divide Berlin and rebuild it


After VJ Day and after 1946, what did we do with our army?

We did not have a single division of army, we subjected to Stalin from our own weakness from demobilization


Why was demobilization a mistake after WWII?

Soviets take advantage of it to prepare for another war. This lets Soviets get to a spot of strength.


What do the Soviets use to push us to our limits?

They use intimidation to see how far they can push us, use a bit of harassment with the idea of how will they respond and how can we push them.


When did the Berlin blockade begin?

June 24, 1948


What happened at the start of the Berlin blockade?

Soviets refuse to leave their spot and the temporary divisions become permanent in East Germany. They now blockaded West Germany from East Germany.


What was a plan that was too risky for the US, so what plan did they try to help it that wouldn't cause direct war?

If an allied train was able to break this blockade, there would be direct war, then they had to think of something else, so they started the Berlin airlift.


What was the Soviets' initial goal of Berlin?

Soviets initial thought was to never rebuild Germany, but to take it for themselves, unlike the West, who tried to rebuild it.


What was the crisis the Soviets made towards the people of Berlin?

-Soviets block road and rail access into West Berlin from US, British, and French sectors of Germany.
-Cut power to West Berlin (2.5 million people are hostages)
-Soviet challenge to policy of Containment


How were people of Berlin suffering?

Berlin needed 15,000 tons of food and fuel per day to survive. Children were dealing with limited food, very little hope for kids and adults in Germany.


Describe the train option of stopping the Berlin crisis.

Use US troops to open roads and railways breaking the blockade if Soviets try to stop or shoot the train, it is WWIII, idea is Soviets will have to back down because they do not want war anyway.


What is the downside to the train option to stop the Berlin Crisis?

Neither side is ready for war, but if you give them that option, they almost must choose war, American people will not support going back to war.


Describe the appeasement option of stopping the Berlin crisis.

Appease Stalin and let the Soviets have the city of Berlin, we never really cared


What was the downside to the appeasement of Stalin?

We cannot let them go to Berlin because they will keep going, see our appeasement as a weakness, and have Berlin, and they could eventually control much of Europe.


What is the third Berlin plan that works?

The Airlift plan


Describe the Berlin Airlift plan.

Airlift supplies into the city using the 3 air corridors, flying over the blockade.


What could be the downside of the airlift method in Berlin?

Big risk is they could get shot down, and if they do get shot down war starts.


Why is the Airlift method a good idea for playing the Soviets in a lose-lose situation?

Soviets would essentially start a war if they shot us down, so we want them to start it for them to mean war, so we can prove they waged the war and we have to stop them. If they do not shoot down the plane, they start running out of ideas to control Berlin, as we are breaking the barrier.


When did the first planes come into Berlin?



Describe our entrance on the first Berlin Airlift.

First planes came into Berlin with tons of food on them, this now brought them 2500 pounds of supplies each day


How do we win the Berlin Airlift?

Soviets do not shoot down the planes, showing they don’t want war.


Why do the Soviets not shoot down the planes from the Airlift?

They do not attack because they knew we had the atomic bomb and Soviets did not, so they would lose if it came down to that.


What happened in 1948 during a German meeting?

Soviets interrupted meeting and arrested 46 people


Why did the Soviets arrest people during that meeting?

They believed city’s future of Communism vs. Democracy was in jeopardy and going the wrong way for them.


78 days into the blockade, why are there people in front of the Reichstag?

They are anticipating a speech.


What did the Reichstag speech contain?

Soviets sentenced the youth for 25 years as western Germans protested against the blockade


What happened to German lives as winter came?

life was harder, many people struggled to get through, many adjustments had to be made, very little food, they used bartering to get through with food, not enough coal for heat, so people went out into the woods for wood.


How did pilots respond to the brutal German winter conditions?

Pilots got determined during the winter to keep up for West Germany


What was made by these pilots to help out the Germans?

They made an advanced radar system which landed planes every 55 seconds.


What happened to Berlin in 1949?

In January, allies raised food rations, and that April they gave more food than ever since the war.


What effects did the Berlin food rations do to the Soviets?

Soviets were now suffering badly, as our airlift was increasing as the Russians were getting tired of it and running out of ways to stop.


When was the blockade lifted in Berlin?

July 1949


What happened when the blockade was lifted?

People were let through to either side


What were the effects of the US victory of Berlin blockade?

-Improved US-German Relations
-Divided Germany
-NATO and Warsaw pact are formed of new alliances


After the victory at Berlin, what was our plan?

Do not demobilize because Soviets will keep fighting and are very persistent. This led to the creation of NSC 68, as we felt the Soviets would contest our goals of containing them.


Describe the country situation after the Berlin blockade was finished.

-Division becomes permanent, West is Democratic from NATO, West Berlin still part of West Germany, East Germany is Soviet.
-Country of West Germany was a big ally for the US.


After the situation in Berlin, what has Europe become in the Cold War?

Europe is much of a done deal as Warsaw and NATO are passed.


What has China been ruled by throughout its history?



How are dynasties more effective than monarchies?

Dynasties are longer-lasting because it is family-ruled, and they can pick best person in family to be ruler, greater flexibility from who to pick, more capable leaders


How long did the Qing dynasty rule?

250 years


What is the problem with China's dynasties?

Problem they have is rest of the world has advanced beyond what China has done.


What European power has influenced China the most?



What were the British selling to China that they grew in India?



How did the Qing dynasty respond to the opium sales?

This is bad for their people , it is ruining lives, they need to keep it out


How did Britain respond to the Qings' response and what did this dispute lead to?

Brits say they want money as they made tons off this sale to Chinese, British wanted to keep selling heroin, so they went to war over this. This war was called the Opian War.


Who won the war between the UK and China?



What other nation beat China in a war before WWII?



In the early 1900s, how well is the dynasty handling things?

Lots of countries making open door policies with China, you have countries using extraterritoriality, meaning foreigners in China don't have to obey Chinese law. Any foreigner that commits a Crime in China gets sent back to their homeland, not in China. This dynasty has lost all ability and sovereignty to control all outside influence in China.


After the dynasty has weakened their sovereignty, how have the people responded to this?

There are big uprises; Following Opian war with England, there are rebellions, because the people are protesting against government because the government cannot protect the country from foreigners


In 1911, who led a Chinese revolution?

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen


What was Yat-Sen's revolution about?

nationalism, democracy, and livelihood


Why was democracy an important part of Yat-Sen's revolution?

Democracy connects by western traditional government so they could make advancements like them that there is some popular power and say in China, democracy is rule by people and people want rule on their country.


Why was nationalism an important part of Yat-Sen's revolution?

Nationalism connects by protecting China from foreign influence.


Why was livelihood an important part of Yat-Sen's revolution?

Livelihood connects by most of the Chinese being peasant farmers and need land to farm. Peasants who work do not own the land. They want the government to take land from the rich land owners and give some of it to the poor peasants who feel they want it.


After the revolution of Yat-Sen's three beliefs, what does he offer to the people?

A Democratic government with people having power which should improve lives


What is the issue with the three beliefs of Yat-Sen working in China?

This is very hard to do by making good on these promises.


Why won't Yat-Sen's view of nationalism work in China?

Because other countries are taking advantage of China


Why won't Yat-Sen's view of democracy work in China?

Because they always have had a dynasty, never a democracy, most people are uneducated about it because it is a newer thing


Why won't Yat-Sen's view of livelihood work in China?

Because rich are powerful people so they wont give up their land easily to the peasants.


When does Yat-Sen die?



Who replaces Yat-Sen?

Chiang Kai Shek


What are the differences in appearance between Yat-Sen and Shek?

Shek is a military leader from China, general for Kuomintang, the nationalist party of China, while Yat-Sen looks like a professional business man.


What upcoming challenge does Shek face just two years after he comes in?



Who led the Communists in China and what did he do against the Nationalists?

Mao Tse-Tung is leader; begins to wage a Civil War against Kuomintang and Chiang Kai Shek, Civil war starts in 1927


What is the nationalist party of China?



Describe how WWII interrupted the Chinese Civil War.

The Civil War paused during WWII.Japanese invade Manchuria and Coastal China, and then they come together and turn efforts against Japan, big problem is WWII goes bad for China, two sides although fighting against Japan, having internal conflicts and end up using the US' military aid fighting each other.


What does Mao do after WWII is over?

He comes up with a plan called the Long March


Describe Mao's Long March Plan.

What he tried to do is having his army decimated, but avoiding Japanese and his enemy forces, the way he does it is with respect.


Describe how Mao used respect with Japanese during the Long March.

He gave them strict control to not live in peoples homes, they would go outside of cities and big areas, gave orders what they can get for people is only to buy from them, do not take from people they are fighting for.


What were the effects of his army's respect?

Peasants had never felt this kind of respect before, so he gains more respect from people.


After WWII, how are the Communists doing?

They are in a good position to get ahead.


Why do we care about the Mao's success?

-we need to stop Communist expansion
-We also worry about population of China, good size for trading
-if you can go to China and sell, you could make lots of money, this is why we got the open door policy with them
-we were helping China and supported Shek's Democracy plan


How do we support Shek to fight in the Chinese Civil War?

Give $3M in military aid to fight forces of Mao.


How does the Chinese Civil War play out?

Mao will start in Manchuria where Japan took over first, exposes the weakness of the democratic people.


Who wins the Chinese Civil War?

Mao wins the Civil War in 1950


What was the top effect from the Chinese Civil War?

Go from having one China to two, as Shek takes his supporters to island of Taiwan.


What are the two Chinas and what form of government do each have?

Red China (mainland)-Communist


What part of Communist containment, especially in Asia is key for us to look for?

The Domino Theory


Describe how the Domino Theory could bring trouble in Asia.

The thought process is that most Asian countries are similar with rich land-owning class and large poor peasant class. If communism takes hold in China, it may start a domino effect throughout the rest of Asia going into Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, India. This could be a first domino falling in China could add significance in the next country.


What does Mao do to give people more information about his Communism?

He puts out a little red book (“Quotations from Mao”) dealing with issues of Communism.


Describe the theater shift in the Cold War.

It is going from Europe and Asia, because we knew that stopping Communism from spreading in Asia was key.


Who was king in Egypt until 1940s?

King Farouk


When was King Farouk overthrown and who was he overthrown by?

RCC (Revolutionary Command Center)


Who was one of the leaders of the coup that overthrew him and what government type was he?

Gamal Abdel Nassar, he is a nationalist.


Why did we care about Egypt?

Because of them being a linchpin between Africa and Middle East


Why was the Suez Canal such as big issue for us?

It is Europe’s oil lifeline, this flows into the Mediterranean Sea, British run this, and make money from it. This was one reason why we wanted to stop Rommel in North Africa in WWII.


Who wanted control of the Suez Canal and why did he want control over it?

Nassar wanted canal control, he tells people it is Egypt's land, canal makes about $25M in profit a year and it should go to Egypt.


What does Nassar also want to be constructed?

Aswan Dam


What are the reasons Nassar wants the Aswan Dam?

-you can control the floods into Egypt from Nile
-lets you have a hydroelectric facility, through Aswan dam, so you can generate cheap, clean power for Egypt.


How did the allies respond to Nassar's demand for the canal?

we want to keep Suez in friendly hands


What did the allies do to distract Nassar from the canal so we could get it back?

We decide to bribe him-give him money for dam project. You forget about Suez, and we will give money to him for building Aswan dam.


What does Nassar originally say to the allied bribe about the canal and dam?

He thinks it is ok.


What becomes problem with Nassar right after the bribe deal is done?

He makes an arms deal with Soviets


Why did Nassar really make the arms deal with the Soviets?

to fight for Suez canal


How do the allies respond to Nassar's deal with the Soviets?

We decide to reseal the loan for the Aswan Dam.


What is the problem with taking our money back from Nassar?

Nassar takes Soviets' weapon money to control that line.


What is happening with Egypt after them taking the Soviets' weapon money to control the canal?

French, Israelis, and British all prepare for war, now there is an Arab nation going to war with Israel. 3 of our closest allies going to war with Egypt, so we try to work it out.


What does the US do after finding out about the Egypt war coming up with 3 of our allies?

We tell UK to back off, and they do so we do not start any big commotion. We decided to forefit it to Egypt.


What are the effects of all the Egyptian conflicts?

-Nassar gets everything he wants without war: the canal, resorts money for Aswan dam in the hope he will avoid the Soviets.
-If Egypt went to war with them, we would side with our allies, Soviets would side with Egypt, and who knows what could happen with atomic bomb?
-Nassar will be half and half with Cold War on which side he will take.
-We decide to let Egypt be to this point.


Who used to rule Congo?

Belgium during the imperialist era.


When does Congo become independent?



Who are Congo's starting President and Prime Minister?

President-Joseph Kasavubu
Prime minister-Patrice Lumumba


What was the initial problem with Congo's independence?

Based on how they divided up Africa after imperialism was gone, you had about 49 different African tribes represented, one Congo was set free, there were many that wanted to be on their own.


What part of Congo took offense to them being unindependent and what did they do about it?

Southern part of Congo called Katanga tried to secede


What happens when Katanga tries to secede?

A 4-part war breaks out.


What are the four sides in the war in Congo?

President Joey sides with Western allies. Prime Minister Patrice sides with Soviets. Katanga gets Belgian support, fourth party is independent, nationalist Congo people.


How do we respond to the war outbreak in Congo and what do we do to prevent Communism in Congo?

We worry if Soviets control Africa and Communist domino theory there. CIA will step in and assassinate Patrice.


After the Congo war, what leader do we replace with as Prime Minister and what do we tell him to do?

We turn to a stronger leader in Colonel Mobutu Sese-Seko. He will control military coup of government.
-We tell him we don't care what he does, just go against Soviets.


What are satellite countries?

Countries located on the Soviet border that are on the inside of the Iron Curtain.


What is going on in Hungary in 1956 and why is this happening?

An uprising has taken place because there is a change in government there


Who is the new leader of the Hungarian government?

Nikolas Kosiri, he was a totalitarian, Stalin-type leader


After Stalin dies and Kruschchev takes his place, what does this allow Hungary to do?

he opens up the Soviet Union a little bit, so now Hungary can move to an open system


Who is appointed as leader of Hungary?

Imre Nagy


What are Nagy's beliefs?

He believes in freedom of speech and press.


What do people in Hungary do after Nagy comes in as leader?

Hungary rebels against the opening up and see a window of opportunity to make progress towards complete freedom.


Why did Hungary rebel and protest towards their complete freedom?

They have been oppressed for 11 years and want to take it to the next level, and be totally free.


What do the Soviets do after they hear about the rebellion in Hungary?

Soviets go in, Khrushchev invades in hard and takes Hungary back.


Why does the US do nothing about the Hungary situation?

US does nothing because of how close Hungary is to Soviet Union.


After the Soviets take Hungary back, what happens to Hungary's political system?

Nagy is tossed out, he is replaced by Janos Kadar, they are reverted to a totalitarian government, Communist government.


How do the Hungarians respond to the reversion back to Communism?

They are fleeing and are trying to get out.


Describe Guatemala based on politics, crime, and economics.

Guatemala is very poor, high crimes dominated by military dictatorships.


What does Guatemala do in 1950?

They establish a democracy, elect president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman.


What does Guzman want to do with Guatemala's land?

Guzman decides to re-distribute land because of poverty rates, he will give it poor people of Guatemala to have something to support themselves.


What is the issue with Guzman's land theory?

The rich who get taken from is going to be mad


Who are the rich land-owners in Guatemala at the time?

The US


Describe a business that uses Guatemalan land that resisted Guzman's theory.

United Fruit Company-American fruit company w/massive holdings in Guatemala.


What does Guzman do with some of the land?

He only takes land they own, but are not even using. Gives it to the people.


How does the United Fruit Company respond to their land being taken away?

Company petitions our government to stop this guy


How do we perceive Guzman after he took away some land from the US?



Who stepped in for the US to stop Guzman?



What operations did the CIA perform to try to stop Guzman?

Operation PB Fortune (1954) and Operation PB Success (1955)


What was Operation PB Fortune?

An economic campaign to try to support reforms in Guatemala.


How was Operation PB a success?

we try to control the land and change society’s leader positions to, Carlos Castillo Armas, military person, will carry out a coup for democratic government in Guatemala


What does PB stand for in Operation PB?

Presidential Board


How was the election of Carlos Castillo Armas helpful to the US?

The fruit company keeps all its land


Based on Cuba's history with dictatorships, what did we hope they would do?

Turn to Democracy


Who came to Cuban power in 1940? What kind of person was he?

Fulgencio Batista-Military general, we hoped he would move them toward democracy


What happened to Batista that turned to be a problem?

he lost an election, so he turned to dictatorship and was more forceful, so it did not work for us.


When were we okay with Cuba?

When a nationalist begins to emerge


Describe the American reaction to Fidel Castro's campaigning.

Many Americans supported him. in 1959, when his revolution begins, he is well-liked in America.


What type of government does Castro follow?



Why is it confusing for our view of Castro as a nationalist?

Where does he fit between Communism and Democracy?


What does Eisenhower do after he gets confused about Castro's political thoughts?

Eisenhower sends his VP Nixon to meet with Castro in New York. Nixon interviews him


What are the results of Nixon's interview with Castro?

He concluded that he is either very naive about Communism or he is trying to hide it and play us as fools.


If Castro turns out as Communist, what would be scary for the US about this?

The fact we would have a Communist nation 90 miles from the US, is incomprehensible.


What does Eisenhower do after the interview's results?

He tells CIA to put together some ideas.


What are some of the silly ideas the CIA originally had to create propaganda about how bad Castro is?

They try dusting his shoes with a dust that makes his hair and beard fall out or talk about pumping a drug into his radio and make his voice slur and sound bad.


What was the CIA's serious plan for Cuba?

Operation Zapata


Describe Operation Zapata.

The plan is to take Cuban exiles when Castro came to power, give them military training and support, air and naval support and then send them back to Cuba at the Bay of Pigs as a proxy war.


What was McCarthyism?

Led by Senator Joe McCarthy, he drew up Panic plans after the good witches.


Describe McCarthy's speech in West Virginia.

flashes a paper of a list of Communist that have infiltrated our government, 253 names of Communists in the government


What does the media ask him about after his showing of his Communists in government list?

Media asks who they are to get people to oust them and save others from them


How did McCarthy answer the media about who the government people are?

McCarthy doesn't want to tell them right away, because there could be more.


What did McCarthy do after making his list and explaining it?

He begins hearings of suspected people of being Communist, without any proof, and yet people’s careers were destroyed, we had to be so secure that the accusation of being called in, was guilty enough.


How does McCarthy take his accusations too far?

he makes accusations of Communists in military


How is he stopped by his accusations of Communists in the military?

Eisenhower is a military President and takes offense to his accusations, goes to army lawyer Joseph Welch, turns to him and tells him to stop and interview McCarthy.


When put on the spot, can McCarthy honestly name one Communist soldier in the military?

he cannot give him one, and he is humiliated for it, and the panic is diminished.


How many atomic bombs have been made from 1947-1953? How many are there after Eisenhower's Presidency?

1000, 18000


What does Kennedy first mention when he becomes President that scares lots of Americans?

Mankind can end the world with the atomic bomb, which is scary to think about, first time ever where we controlled our own fate.


What regions did Brinksmanship not work in?

SE Asia, Sub Saharan Africa, Middle East or Latin America


After finding out Brinksmanship does not work in certain areas, what does Eisenhower do?

Eisenhower will use CIA in different way than what it’s original function was.


How did Eisenhower change the CIA?

In 1949, CIA had budget of $4.9M, 300 employees, small government agency.
-By 1953, it will have budget of $82.1M and many more employees too from being spies to problem solvers.


What did we have to ask ourselves after the CIA realignment?

Is the US right? We have made so many political mistakes in the past, is this right for us?


What did Iran used to be?

A British puppet government.


Who was the leader of this puppet government in Iran?

Reza Shah Pehlavi.


What does Shah mean?

King of Iran


What is the Shah's plan with the British?

He has a workable arrangement with Britain with oil, Iran’s top natural resource.


Describe the Shah's oil plan with Britain.

British come in take oil, Shah gets a cutback profit, UK makes lots of money, as does Shah


What group of people are opposed to the oil plan in Iran?

Iranian people


Why are Iranian people angry about the Shah's oil deal with Britain?

Iranian people are having trouble seeing their one resource flying out of the country just for their king’s wealth, nothing came back to people of Iran.


Who was Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh?

he becomes Prime Minister in Iran after their liberation.


What kind of politics does Mossadegh follow?



What is the US's problem with Mossadegh being a nationalist?

He talks about nationalizing oil industry in Iran


Why do we not like Mossadegh's plan with the oil?

Nationalists want to keep foreigners out, and this fits into Cold War by him putting it under government control, nationalist is right in middle of Cold War sides, so Iranian government takes profits from oil and then government and people make money from industry of oil, feels if it is their resource, it should benefit their people. To us, this sounds like Socialism.


How did we respond to Mossadegh's oil plan and who was put charge of it?

-Kermit Roosevelt-the CIA operative in Iran, takes Mossadegh as a dangerous somewhat Communist, we have to get rid of him.
-We come to conclusion that he is communist, and we feel we should kill him. He puts a plan together on how we should kill him.


What is the problem that kills Kermit Roosevelt's plan?

Mossadegh finds out about plan, Mossadegh goes to the people, safest place in public and tries to spread it to people of Iran so they can help them. People rally and riot around and help him.


After Mossadegh's rally, what does the Shah do?

He leaves the country


Now that the US has to find another way to stop the Communism in Iran, what is their new plan?

They decide to flip the people of Iran’s opinion to favoring to the Shah. Shah should be the leader because it will be a safer bet for the US.


What was the name of our plan to get people to shift back to the Shah for their leader?

Operation Ajax


Why was Operation Ajax called ajax?

ajax is a cleaner, we made a mess in Iran and we have to clean it up.


What are Zirganeh Giants?

Iranian heavy wrestlers; they are treated like heroes and popular celebrities.


What does the CIA do for Operation Ajax?

CIA goes to Zirganeh Giants and tells them to support the Shah. Their life is comfortable with the Shah in charge, we get them to parade through the streets, so people come out and see them and think of them as heroes.


Who else is at the Zirganeh Giant parade and what are they doing there?

The CIA is there throwing out money along the parade route to get even more people out and then the Shah is promoted, public opinion shifts to the Shah. We took complete advantage of society following popular belief.


What happens after the parade?

A brief military battle takes place at Mossadegh’s house, 400 people are killed, Mossadegh is arrested.


After the battle at Mossadegh's house, what aftereffects take place?

-Shah will come back after that battle and comes back into power, we restore control in Iran and the oil industry with the British.
-They do not kill Mossadegh, so they bash him with embarrassment and some lies.


What treaty was formed after the Shah came back?

-METO Treaty (Middle East with UK, US, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq)-aka the Baghdad Pact


Describe the Soviets helping us go into Japan at the end of WWII.

As we were planning invasion to Japan, idea is we need Soviets’ help, and they start moving forces into Korea.


How are Japan and Korea supposed to be divided after the war according to our plan?

Thought is Soviets will own North Korea, we will take South Korea, and then we will take Japan and put it back together.


What was the dividing line between the Koreas? Was this supposed to be temporary?

38th parallel, supposed to be temporary


How do the Soviets take our plan with Korea and what does this lead to?

Soviets do not accept plan, so Korea remains divided.
-Now, we have a new line separating North and South Korea (Communists and Free Korea).


Who was Truman’s Sec of State after George Marshall

Dean Acheson


What does Acheson do when he is elected?

He draws a line in East Asia saying where we must contain including Japan, Taiwan, and Philippines, not South Korea.


Why is Acheson's line drawing plan a mistake?

How the North Koreans and Soviets see it is that they should try to take it because the US isn't caring about it, so Soviets wanted to expand Communism


What starts the Korean war and who starts it?

North Korea crosses the parallel into South Korea, catch them off guard, nobody sees this coming, they capture the capital of Seoul, and continued down the Peninsula to the Pusan perimeter


When did the North Korean attack happen?



What was the Pusan perimeter?

Where Americans put their forces in South Korea.


What directions of Korea do the Communists go?

Goes all the way down, all the way up, and into the middle and bobs up and down.


How does Truman react to the Communist invasion?

He asks for UN to help with peacekeeping forces.


How is the UN's involvement in the Korean War a prime example of what they are supposed to do?

Here is a peaceful South Korea attacked by an aggressive neighbor


How does the UN help out South Korea?

UN sends in peacekeeping forces.


Why were the Soviets not paying attention to the UN's involvement in Korea? What situation were they angry about with the UN at the time?

Soviets aren't there, they are mad about China, you had one China over another about which one sits on the Security council, Soviets wanted mainland China in, but there was controversy which one would be on


If Red China was on the Security Council, what could have the Soviets done to the war in Korea?

Soviets could have stopped the UN flag from flying in Korea.


Describe the two sides' governments set up in Korea.

Soviets set up a Communist in DPRK and we set up in South Korea.


Who was the allied leader in South Korea?

Sygmon Rhee


After the Soviets complained to the UN about China, what did the UN do?

They ignored them and made the real problem about Korea.


What countries make up the South Korean forces?

US and South Korea will make up bulk of South Korean forces, also nationalist Chinese, Australian, French, British.


Who does the UN appoint to lead the UN forces in South Korea?

Douglas MacArthur


What was MacArthur's idea at the start of the Korean War?

Korea should be united, he says all we need to do is jump into Korea, and just send in US forces, we already have lots of forces in Japan as an occupational army.


How much do we prepare for the Korean war?

we jump into Korea with no plan, no training, not very prepared.


What does MacArthur describe our plan about how we go about it when we get to Korea?

McArthur calls it an arrogant display of strength, we just show up and beat them, North Korea will be so intimidated when they see US fighting them.


What really happens when we show up in the Korean War

we get routed with no preparation, get pushed back to the perimeter.


What is the name of McArthur's new plan after his first plan failed in Korea?

He comes up with a plan to Inchon, it is a port city near Seoul, big force near DPRK lines, at the same time we will reinforce Pusan and if we can get across peninsula in time, we can force them back over the line.


What is the advantage of invading the city of Inchon?

When you invade a city, this gives defensive advantages to the enemy because of streets, buildings.


Why must you be careful when invading a city like Inchon about timing of the attack?

Inchon also suffers from massive tidal waves, you have to time this attack right because you could sit in mud and enemy shoots you for 12 hours until tide comes back in again, invasions must happen in waves, you must wait for next waves.


Who is opposed to McArthur's plan of Inchon? Does McArthur stick with it?

All military advisors say this is a bad idea, but McArthur is taking a chance


How is the Inchon plan a success?

This plan actually works, our troops get ashore, they retake Seoul, we get breakout from Pusan, DPRK falls apart from all this pressure, as we are at 38th parallel.


After Inchon works, we are at the 38th parallel. What decision must we make?

Do we get more greedy, goal of containment has been achieved, do we increase that goal to beat them and cross the parallel?


How does Truman respond to our thoughts of crossing the parallel?

Truman is worried about what Chinese and Soviets will do, summons everyone to a meeting at Wake Island


What does Truman discuss at Wake Island?

McArthur is there, and Truman asks him what will happen


What do the Chinese say at the Wake Island meeting?

Chinese are not inerested in getting a war, Mao has a problem in his government, Soviets have no interest in a country halfway across the world, worst case scenario is if China gets involved, we will slaughter them at the Yalu River, the border between China and North Korea, McArthur says their firepower will destroy them, so China stays out.


What does Truman say after all countries have stated their opinions?

Truman says okay


As we push into North Korea, what is our new goal?

Eliminating instead of containing Communism


How far do we push into North Korea?

Close to the Yalu River


What happens when we reach near the Yalu?

Chinese invade into North Korea


Why did China invade when they saw us coming up near the Yalu?

We could invade into China approaching the Yalu, we also are an enemy of Communism, great enemy at doorstep of China that may try to overtake them. They like North Korea as a buffer zone


Describe the Chinese army in Korea and why they are a threat.

They have hardly anything, what they do have is numbers, they invade in hundreds of thousands into Korea, they go in numbers and come in waves


Why do we not pick up on the Chinese Korean invasion right away?

These guys are on foot and they can hide well


About how many men do the Chinese infiltrate into Korea?

About 300K


What and When was the Chinese's first move when they got into Korea?

They set a trap at the Chosin Reservoir in North Korea, right after around Thanksgiving time, it is 2-3 days after that Mao will launch his trap.


Describe the weatehr conditions of the Chinese invasion timeframe.

It was very cold, modern wind chill makes it even -100 degrees. It was so cold, China launched their attack, we do not see it


What saved us from a bad attack in North Korea?

Our firepower saves the day, we have complete air supremacy in Korea until after the war.


What is our plan to get all of our soldiers out?

Marines must pull out, so they attack in opposite direction, try to get to place called Hung Nam, a port city with boats so Navy can get them out


When our marines retreat, what happens to them in Korea

Chinese attack them all the way


After the marine retreat in Korea, what is China's big weakness and how do we take advantage of it?

The thing that keeps China out of them is air force, we keep bombing China, once we pick up marines on the boats, we level Hung Nam.


As the Chinese keep attacking us, how far do they get?

They make it all the way to Seoul and capture it for North Korea.


Once we hear that China has captured Seoul, how do we respond?

We push them back to the 38th parallel as the battle turns into a stalemate.


After the battle in Korea, what does McArthur think he can do next? Does Truman like his idea?

McArthur thinks of restarting the Chinese civil war, he wants Taiwanese people into red China, Mao could pull back, McArthur had a plan to use 10 atomic bombs in Chinese cities, so Mao would pull back, we would use atomic bombs at Yalu to create radioactive wasteland into North Korea, McArthur thinks he can take over China and Korea. Truman does not approve of the idea.


Why does Truman disapprove of McArthur's atomic bomb plan in China and Korea?

Truman doesn't want atomic bombs because if we drop on China, Soviets will drop on Europe, we will send a message that it’s okay to use it, and nuclear warfare is okay and we are not the only ones that have it now, so someone else could bomb us back.


How does McArthur respond to Truman's disapproval of the atomic bombing plan?

McArthur writes a letter to a Congressman about how bad Truman is about the war in China and Korea, letter gets published in paper.


What is the problem with McArthur's letter that gets published?

he insubordinates the President, McArthur gets fired for the insubordination of Truman, his boss.


When McArthur arrives home, how do people treat him?

McArthur gets home and has a parade and people like him, he gets a hero's welcome.


What is McArthur's goal after he is revered? Does he accomplish the goal? How does Truman react to this?

He wants to run for President. Truman does not re-run because of his fear McArthur's popularity would win the election and humiliate Truman. However, McArthur does not win the election anyway.


Who replaced McArthur?

Matthew Ridgeway


What was Ridgeway's goals for the rest of the Korean war? How do the war dynamics change after Ridgeway comes in?

He felt we do not cross 38th parallel, it now becomes a stalemate, goes from highly mobile, to very stationary war


What is Sitskreig?

like sitting down


How did the war in Korea play out with us and the Chinese during the Sitskreig timeframe?

Chinese could run at us with numbers, we go kill a million Chinese, and there are still many left, what we have is firepower, China would run us off the hill, we bomb them hard and take it back, but there is no advancement in what land there is between the two.


What is everyone looking to do to solve the Korean war as it is essentially a stalemate at this point?

negotiations begin to take place


What do the Chinese make of the slow part of the Korean war?

Allows Mao to win propaganda battle of Communist vs. Capitalist, Mao uses war in Korea to show off his own power


During the negotiations, what did China do and why did they do it?

They played games of negotiations such as table shape, and chair height. They did this because they were totally uninterested in negotiations.


What was one thing during these negotiations that China did dispute about?



How did both the Chinese and Americans feel about POWs in China and America?

Chinese were captured more than Americans and the Chinese did not want them to leave so they could spread Communism more.


What is the problem with our POWs from China and also our own POWs in China not leaving?

We are trying to be brainwashed about Communism and Mao’s quotes


With respect to Chinese POWs in the US, what did we have to do to help them get out of our country spreading Communism?

They decide to do the Operation Big Switch/Little Switch


When did Stalin die?



Why was Stalin's death a detriment to China?

he had supported Chinese efforts of fighting Korea and even helped pay for weapons.


Who replaced Stalin and how did he handle supporting China?

Kruchschev who replaced him, felt that Chinese would pay for weapons, but they do not have the money


What are the effects of China's loss in military supplies?

Chinese have to get out of the war, so now a cease fire is reached in Korea at the 38th parallel.


What does MASH Stand for?

Mobile Army Surgical Hospital


Why was having MASH so important?

52K+ would die in Korea


Name two reasons why MASH was made.

One way is surgical hospitals located closer to front lines, war injuries are traumatic injuries, treatment first hand is key, putting the hospitals near the front saved lots of lives, we also had helicopters, so we could fly the people into the hospitals faster which saved lots of lives, this took the military strategy and applied it to civilian use.


Who won the election of 1952?



After elected, what are Eisenhower's thoughts of Korea?

Eisenhower thinks he wont go to Korea


What do the American people think Eisenhower will do about Korea?

Eisenhower will get them out because of his war experience.


What was Eisenhower's plan for dealing with Korea?

Eisenhower does is he leaves it as considering using nuclear weapons, Eisenhower really never changes much as Stalin’s death did to the war.


Where were the negotiations made between US and China?



What was the end reaction to the Korean War in America?

It was over and we are done, no hatred, no parade, just coming home and happy it is over.


What was Eisenhower's philosphy of Brinksmanship?

to run the Soviets up to the edge of nuclear war, so that nobody in their right mind would go over the edge and drop the atomic bomb.


After Brinksmanship was our goal, what became the ultimate weapon?

The atomic bomb


What was Nuclear Deterrent?

We are willing to jump off and if they do not do it, it will be the end of the world for them because we aren't afraid to push them to their limits


What is MAD?

Mutually Assured Destruction-Soviets know if we push them, they will have to jump off that edge.


What was our new plan of containment to the USSR along with Brinksmanship?

Use the fear and threat of atomic attack as massive retaliation


What did the US do to increase the atomic threat and fear in the Soviet Union?

Added (nuclear) air bases in Turkey


Why did we make nuclear bases in Turkey?

about proximity of bomb to the USSR, so we do not have to fly the supplies so far, this way Soviets knew it was close to them so we were able to threaten them.


What makes the Turkish bases so fearsome?

We have it in our back pocket, biggest fear is life in the hand, a game-changer for everyone.


How many defense treaties did we sign after putting the base in Turkey



Why did we set up the defense treaties after putting the base in place in Turkey?

if they are attacked, they will let US know and then it is a personal commitment to the defense, that way each country will get more help and the US will be notified if one of their allies is attacked so they can respond.


Describe how bad the hydrogen bomb was.

100x more destructive than one we used on Hiroshima.


Why did we threaten the atomic bomb on the Soviets?

-By having ability to do it and be willing to follow through with hydrogen bomb
-Eisenhower is a former 5 star general, supreme allied European commander, USSR knows him very well, which gives him credibility when he says he is willing to do this.


Name the biggest reason for Brinksmanship.

It saved money


How was containment such as an expensive method?

(Truman Doctrine ($400M) + NSC-68 ($200B) + Marshall Plan ($34B) + Berlin Airlift ($224M) + China ($3B) + Korea ($30B) + FIC ($2.6B) + $1B to Siem’s government=$271,224,000,000


How did we reduce our military members and how much did we save annually from brinksmanship?

He saved $4B a year.
-Reduced Army (500,000), Navy (100,000), Increase Air Force (30,000) to drop bomb.


What is Sputnik?

first man-made satellite into Space, radio transmitter


Why does Sputnik scare us?

they got the technology first, scares us that they are technological superior


If Sputnik was an atomic bomb, what would be the issue for us?

planes would be shot down in Turkey with bombs, they would shock everyone.


What did the government do in response to Sputnik?

Government set up Federal Civil Defense Administration


What was the job of the Federal Civil Defense Administration?

to prepare US for this possibility and to convince people to think they can survive this kind of war


How did the FCDA give us confidence that we could survive?

they used propaganda to have people form as one as a community


What did kids at schools do in case a bomb dropped?

Duck and cover drills


How did the FCDA work family bomb shelters?

Families built bomb shelters, with necessary equipment, government would tell you how to prepare and how long to stay in the shelter.


When was the National Security Act formed? What two groups were created from it?

National Security Council and the CIA in 1947


Why did we pass the National Security Act?

Brinkmanship only works in certain areas of the world, you need a middle ground (CIA). They use this to solve some other problems and help keep containing communism.


What the point of the CIA?

To provide a middle ground between appeasement and nuclear war through overt and convert operations.


What kind of war was the French Indochina war in Vietnam

It was their first revolutionary war.


How many nations is French Indochina made of What are they?

Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam


Who owned French Indochina and why did they own it?

French are in these countries and are there for resources, lots of oil, some rice, tin, tungsten


Describe the French's operation with rubber in Indochina.

Michelin tires came from there in France


After WWII and the allies were pushing themselves to let these countries be on their own, why did the French want to keep French Indochina?

The rubber business is going well for them. They get humiliated by Germany. Germany shocked them and runs over them in 2 weeks from crossover to Paris.
The French want to re-establish themselves as a key player, and say they are still a big power, at end of war they resist self-determination, so they keep Vietnam


Who did the French set up a government under after WWII in Vietnam?

Bao Dai


Describe Bao Dai and his connection to France.

French educated, Catholic in a 90% Buddhist country, but has his French connection


Who is Dai's Communist rival?

Ho Chi Minh


What does Ho Chi Minh mean?

He who enlightens


Why did Minh change his name to Minh?

means He who enlightens, changed his birth name to embrace Communist spirit


What did Ho Chi Minh do at age 23?

He sailed from Vietnam to France to petition to the French government for independence in 1921


How did France react to Minh's 1921 petition?

France is not interested, as French was in imperialism age, recovering from WWI, told him to leave


How did Minh respond to France telling him no on the petition?

he stays persistently


After France's rejection, where and when does Ho Chi Minh go?

In 1925 he is in US talking to our government trying to get support for a Vietnamese revolution


What does Minh do in the US?

He drafts a Declaration of Independence based on ours and petitions our government to say what you got, you got money and weapons, foreign powers against UK, he wants same powers and opportunities the US got in our revolution.


What did the US tell him after Minh's proposal?

We said go away, we are isolationists, just off of WWI, why would we turn our backs on allied France because they gave us help during our Revolution.


After getting rejected by both France and the US, what does Minh do next back in Vietnam?

forms the Vietminh, the Communist Party in Vietnam


How does Minh rebel against the French?

begins to wage guerrilla war against France


What is guerrilla warfare?

Guerrilla war is traps, mines, farmer by day, soldier by night, unconventional forces, not trained, lots of ambushes, sniper fires, not large units, no planes or tanks, small groups of people, lightly armed, set up ambushes in place, as a result they get low casualties, neither does opponent, you win a guerrilla war by pestering the opponent.


How did Minh get the guerrilla warfare idea?

Minh got idea from US revolution to British, as we used guerrilla warfare by not losing and pestering the British to the point it was no longer worth it for them.


How did WWII affect who Vietnam fought for and how we fought for them?

Japan took French Indochina during WW2, and he fought against Japan for us, he was fighting French, Japs, and French again.


Why did we help the French in Vietnam?

French are historical allies, even before the British, we have to care about France because we need them strong in our NATO treaty.


Why was containment so critical in Vietnam?

the domino theory is in effect, China has fallen, they are in Korea, and now Vietnam has it now


How did the US respond to the Vietnam revolt?

Navarre Plan


What was the Navarre Plan?

US responds ($2.6B in military aid and MAAG-advisors, Military Assistance Advisory Group)


How do the French prepare to fight Vietnam?

They developed a plan with US of counter guerrilla warfare, plan is out guerrilla them, you cannot sit back and let it go, you must keep fighting, they build forts in Vietnamese countryside with 15-20K French troops, had clear lines of fire and barbed wire, each had an airfield to bring in men/supplies.


How would the French's plan work against the Vietnamese?

The small Vietnamese groups cannot beat the large group of French, you can be secure during the day at the base, but at night you can ambush and attack the ambushers, take the war to them, you wage war at night, during the day you rest at the base.


Where do the French first run into trouble with Vietnam?

Dien Bien Phu, NW corner of Vietnam


Describe Dien Bien Phu and what their mistake was.

They did not take higher ground, common sense which was dumb, it was a valley around mountains, which were high ground for them to shoot down at the French. Another mistake was underestimating your enemy, they felt there is no way that Vietnam will get their guns over the hills.


Describe how the Vietminh made it up the mountain and destroyed the French and how they taught France a lesson.

Vietminh crossed mountains with guns, inch by inch, to fire at the French and are able to get the supplies up the mountain, French do not understand the Vietnamese history, they fought Chinese, French, Japanese, and now US. Culture of revolution is very deep in Vietnam.


Who was general of the Vietminh at Dien Bien Phu?

Vo Nguyen


How did general Nguyen change his plan of attack after Dien Bien Phu?

heavy artillery was held back, troops’ morale was held back to fight solidly, shovels became weapons, and they dug trenches and tunnels, they dug into them


How did the French fare in Nguyen's plan of attack? Why did they struggle so much?

With the airstrip out the French were dependent on parachute drops, supplies fell into enemy hands and used your own stuff to kill you, it was a nightmare for the French, they were embarrassed. Vietminh arrived, and next day they attacked and humiliated French.


What were the results of the battle of Dien Bien Phu? How long did the battle last?

It was a 55 day battle that ended with a French loss, it cost them 1500 dead, 400 wounded, many died in camps, Vietminh cost 8K dead, 1500 wounded, yet they won.


What was the Geneva Conference?

A political revolution in 1954 with reps from all countries involved discussing Asia, British and Soviets are there.


What is determined at the Geneva Conference?

The three SE Asian countries will gain independence, but Vietnam will be split at the 17th parallel temporarily. They will give each side 2 years to develop and then poll the public of which one to keep.


How is Vietnam split and who leads each side?

Minh would setup a Communist government in the north, south Vietnam would have a Democratic government under Ngo Dinh Diem.


Describe how Ngo Dinh Diem is related to America.

American educated, was at a Seminary in New Jersey, Catholic and authoritative


What does Eisenhower think of Diem?

would call him miracle man in SE Asia, he would stop dominos from falling


What do we establish to help support Diem in the vote?

we established SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, now this ties US to defense of South Vietnam


At Geneva Conference, what does our representative do?

he will refuse to sign document and walk out


When the 2 year vote comes around, what does Diem do?

He rigs the election and gives himself 98% of the voter in South Vietnam even though he needs 60% to win.


How does Minh feel about the rigged election?

Minh feels he has been cheated for 30 years of this goal, he finally gets to Geneva for the voting news, still waiting for the vote to happen, and then vote gets rigged and US gets rug pulled from you and cannot accomplish his dream.


After the rigged election, what does Minh do?

He forms the NLF-National Liberation Front


What is Minh's purpose for the NLF?

2 groups Vietminh (Communist Vietnamese, put together 45K troops, more orthodox warfare, other part is Vietcong, South Vietnamese Nationalists, they are guerrillas, they are southern Vietnamese, may or may not be Communists, but they just want everyone out, especially the US.


Who led the NLF's Vietminh group?

led by Vo Nguyen Giap


After we hear about the creation of NLF, what do we realize?

It becomes our war in Vietnam, once we pledged support for Diem, there is no going back for US.