Flashcards in WWII in Europe 1939-1941 Deck (73):
When and how did WWII start?
Invasion of Poland
When were the preparations made for the Invasion?
What two countries invaded Poland?
Germany and USSR
How do Germany and the Soviets invade Poland?
Germany goes in takes their third, Soviets take 2/3 of other side to secure eastern front for Germany
Did Poland know the invasion was coming?
How did Poland prepare for the invasion?
They had an army on the border
What did England and France do after the invasion?
They declared war on Germany and help Poland.
What did the Soviets take advantage of after the invasion?
took advantage of world’s focus of what Germany was doing to launch attack of own to Finland and Poland.
How did the battle of Finland go for the Soviets?
This battle doesn't go well for Soviets, not much attention to it, however, attacked Finland in September when it is very cold. Fins put up good resistance.
What were some aspects of the Invasion of Poland that Poles weren't prepared for?
-Did not see Soviets coming from other side
-Unprepared for new side of warfare.
What are Blitzkrieg Tactics?
it translated to Lightning War, football gets blitz term from this
Where did Germany practice new war technologies?
What are typical war tactics?
two sides line up and shoot. Infantry foot soldiers goes after enemy in an attack. Soldiers are supported by cavalry, on horses. Their purpose is for support of infantry.
What are the football analogies to the war tactics?
Infantry is like D-line in football, goes forward, cavalry is like linebackers are more mobile, they don't know where enemies will attack, and faster on horses, backup front line, so they can support the infantry.
What other group of military backs up the infantry?
What is the artillery's job?
to bomb/shoot the enemy, job is to soften enemy before the other groups get there.
How were typical war tactics changed for WWII and why were they harder to be used?
cavalry attacks with tanks, not horses, still have infantry supporting, but they are more mobile with trucks, cars, vehicles, keep pace with tanks, artillery to bomb enemy.
What is the Luftwaffe?
German air force
Why did Germany create the Luftwaffe?
Because Germany struggled with war technology in WWI, they created the Luftwaffe to have a new modern threat for the war
What did the Luftwaffe do?
They have bomber planes to soften them up, fly over the lines and bomb behind them so they cannot retreat. Also have dive bombers, known as a Stuka, they can use artillery while soldiers are in combat. Can continue to use artillery, while soldiers are still engaged.
What happens during a blitz?
everybody goes forward to try to overwhelm the opponent with the speed and strength of the attack, you either have to surrender or die.
What were Poland's results from the German Blitz?
Whole large Polish army is beaten in weeks, even when they saw it coming.
What happens to the war after the beating of Poland?
A 4-month lull takes place, little fighting goes on.
How do France and England respond to having to go to war?
They have a doubting mentality from WWI, even though they must honor the alliance. They really don't want war, but they have to go. They are hoping not much goes on where they really need to help out.
How do France and England respond to the beating of Poland?
They are angry and now have to really go.
What was a small mistake made by Hitler about England and France not fighting right away?
He could have taken advantage of them holding out of the fighting and blown right through them, but he went east, even though the enemies are west. Hitler also was heading east, and he can't go too far because of the Non-Aggression Pact with Russia.
What was the Operation name for Hitler's attack in Norway and Denmark?
Why did Hitler invade Norway and Denmark?
the end game of the war is going for England somewhat, so they need to invade England to win this war. They go here because it is close to England and could control body of water in between them and England, means they must go through English channel and North channel, if they control those, they can easily invade England.
What was Hitler's next step after Operation Weser?
Are the French prepared for an attack?
What is the Maginot Line?
an engineering line, state of the art technology, goes stories down to prevent bombing, inside there are ammo, hospitals, underground railroad, food, water, barracks, other war supplies as well, spend $7B franks on it, absolute state of the art technology
Why was the Maginot Line constructed?
if Germany was to attack, they decided if Germany was to be on the border, the Maginot Line was along the spot they thought they would attack.
Where did Hitler plan of attacking France from?
Through Belgium near the Northern Areas of France
For Hitler's planned attack on France, what was France doing to prepare?
They are trying to push Germany into their helpers, Belgium, and Netherlands, as help defense, so Germany must get through two countries before they go into France.
What problem does France face after getting this help?
How does Hitler get to France so quickly?
Hitler blows through Belgium and Netherlands so fast, they cannot stop him. He is at French border.
What is a small mistake Hitler makes when he gets to the French border?
He waits for a few days on the French border.
Why does Hitler hold up at the border?
-Part of speculation of this is that infantry is having tough time keeping pace with tanks of cavalry, and getting hard to keep pace. They didn't want the gap in there, because the gap could have been exploited.
-Part of speculation is Hitler thinks it is too easy that there could be a counter attack on him.
What was Operation Dynamo?
An attack in Dunkirk, France by the Germans that people can see coming.
What did England do for this planned attack at Dunkirk?
British will evacuate 338, 226 men in France for the attack. They ferried boats into England and picked up troops.
What were the effects of England and France evacuating Dunkirk?
This saved the war in Europe because it blocked English channel, gives England a significant army. If he got into England that easy, it would be over.
What parts of France are invaded after Operation Dynamo?
Paris is invaded within 2 weeks of invading, and got through France so easy.
After conquering Paris, what does Hitler do?
Because they got through France so easy, they decide to wait to bolster their army to go to England.
What are other French places Hitler conquered en route to his victory in France?
Vichy and Gurring
Once Hitler conquers all of France, what does it leave him with?
Only one enemy-England
What is the challenge for Hitler to get into England?
English channel, narrow body of water, not much room to hide anything. crossing the channel shows you are exposing your fleet, full intention is to invade
What must Hitler do to invade into England?
They must control the skies above the channel.
Who is the Battle of Britain between?
Royal airfare(UK) vs. Luftwaffe
What is the Luftwaffe's advantage over the RAF?
Luftwaffe has firepower, more numbers than RAF, more resources
What is the RAF's advantage over the Luftwaffe?
RAF has more maneuverable planes, have skilled pilots
What is at stake in the Battle of Britain?
If RAF lose, it means country gets invaded, they get killed, they realize they have to win, if not it is over.
What was the enigma machine?
A German code typewriter used in the war.
What happened to some of the German code?
Norwegians were able to decode some German code, and gave it to England, so they knew German code, built radar stations near coast, kind of know where they would attack.
What is the result of the Battle of Britain?
What are the effects of the Battle of Britain?
it is a draw, good for England, they only needed a tie. Hitler is not confident to cross English channel.
How does the Battle of Britain change the war?
-Both sides adjust on what is happening on battle
-Cancellation of Operation Sea Lion-Hitler is not confident to cross English channel, this changes the war
-Tripartite Pact with Japan (1940)-this brings Japan into the alliance.
After regrouping from the Battle of Britain, where did the Nazis go?
North Africa and the Balkan Peninsula
Why did the Nazis go to North Africa?
-To get into middle east, to get more resources, invading this way.
-British are in Egypt,
-The Blitz/Wolf Packs-Germany is using subs, England uses cash and carry from US, Hitler is using subs to sink those ships, used destroyers to protect cargo ships,
-Germans come up with strategies, bombs big cities, called Blitz, purpose was to wear down the British physically and mentally.
-Begins several weeks of a nonstop bombing campaign.
What is Operation Barbossa?
Hitler makes another big mistake, in summer of 1941, he takes on war he doesn't need to take on, he invades Soviet Union.
Why did Hitler invade the USSR?
-To weaken the Soviet Union because they were Communists, opposite end of political spectrum, hated communists as Nazis
-Attacks USSR now because they were on winning streak and wanted to keep going,
-They had nobody to fight, so they fought USSR
Why was Operation Barbossa a big mistake by the Nazis?
he takes on war he doesn't need to take on
Does USSR know the attack is coming?
What strategy does USSR use to stave off Germany?
What is Scorched Earth?
They burn everything they have and keep retreating further east.
Why was Scorched Earth a good strategy against Germany?
Germany cant get anything to steal, no resources, all of a sudden Russia had a winter that is cold and long, the supplies cannot get to Russia, then they sucker them in, let them push in as far, and once they wear out they have to counterattack
What was the tradeoff for USSR for Scorched Earth?
loss of life is huge, lost 1 million people for this to work, cost is extreme
Who fell victim to scorched earth 100 years before in another war?
What happened to Napoleon during his challenges with Scorched earth?
had 1 million men and left with only 60,000 soldiers left
Why does Germany fall for this and think they can survive it?
Germany fell for it because they have tanks and think they haven't seen Germany, Napoleon was over 100 years ago, too, they had new warfare.
How far into Russia does Germany get before they are forced to leave?
Very close to Moscow
What would have happened if the Germans made it to Moscow?
They would have won and pushed the Soviets further back.
After the Scorched Earth mistake by Hitler, what does this mean for Britain?
They just need to hang on and survive and hope for help, country to give help is the US, create every barrier for US to get there, get help in lend-lease, Atlantic Charter signing, surviving blitz, hold the line in Egypt, get help, keep containing them until help is there.