Flashcards in WWII in the Pacific Deck (67):
What timeframe did WWII take place in the Pacific?
When does Roosevelt die?
April 15, 1945
What does Hitler think when Roosevelt dies?
Hitler thinks he catches the break when Roosevelt dies, and that the allies will fall apart.
Even after Roosevelt's death, will the allies make it?
What does the big picture look like after Battle of the Bulge?
We are pressing in on Germany
When does Hitler kill himself?
April 30, 1945
What happened during Hitler's suicide?
Hitler kills himself, along with his wife Ava Brown in a bunker, married days before suicide, he shot himself, SS bulldozed the bunker, to cover up from Russia.
Why did Hitler kill himself?
-When Germans went from Soviet Union, they were the absolute enemy, so USSR wanted payback, and Germans knew it.
-Germans wanted US to get to Berlin first so US would not hit it as hard, but it won't happen, so Hitler surrenders and kills himself.
How is the Berlin attack planned with US and USSR?
Eisenhower tells our army to go into Southern Germany, lets Russia go into Berlin, Stalin thought like a politician, and we let them go in so we can cover up the whole country.
When was the German surrender and what is the day called?
May 7, 1945 called VE Day
Where has Japan attacked after Pearl Harbor?
They have expanded into SE Asia, went to Philippines, French-Indo-China, push into Indonesia, and other Pacific islands, gone as far as Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu in Alaska.
What seems to be the plan coming up for Japan?
Have a plan of coming back to Hawaii or even into California.
What is the issue with them getting to Hawaii?
There are many steps in the way.
When Japan's plan was being speculated, what did US do?
They took the defensive war approach.
What was the view of the Pacific during Japan's attacks?
Arcadia Conference decision had placed priority in Europe and the defeat of Germany. Roosevelt and Churchill discussion before US went to war, focus on Europe, bulk of our allies were there, UK needed help, so did Soviets, and it would take more than Lend-Leases to help them.
After the Arcadia Conference, what was the plan for the allies?
We decided to be offensive in Europe and defensive in the Pacific to just hold off Japan.
When was the Battle of Coral Sea?
May 7-8, 1942
Describe the Battle of Coral Sea.
Takes place off the coast off Australia, to keep Japanese out of Australia, goal for them was to get Australia, but they had to stop them, battle results as a draw.
What kind of battle and warfare were used in Battle of Coral Sea?
It is a sea battle, no land forces, only Navy are involved with ships, planes on ships, planes on planes launched from ships. Launching planes and maneuvering around, and each side is trying to stop each other.
Why is the draw of Battle of Coral Sea significant to the US?
US can show Japan we have resistance
What is Midway?
We used it as a fueling base to get from Japan to Hawaii.
When was the battle of Midway Atoll?
June 4-7, 1942
Describe the battle of Midway Atoll.
More clear of a US victory, we lose 1 ship, Japan loses 4 ships, Japan starts losing momentum. The turning point of the war turns towards the US, Japan pulls back to defensive line.
After the battle of Midway Atoll, what does the US need to do to keep holding off Japan?
They cannot just sit there, in a position where they control much of China and SE Asia, US has to do something to keep them back, because they still own lots of Asia
Where is Guadalcanal?
What was the importance of Guadalcanal?
first real attempt for us to drive out Japanese, to be offensive.
What did the US learn from Guadalcanal?
we learned Japan has fortified all these little Pacific islands, and left behind many soldiers to fight to death, strategy for Japan is to make costly in terms of money and lives for the US, maybe they will negotiate and be able to compromise, which means Japan will probably win with where we started this.
What happens in the end at Guadalcanal?
Both sides run out of weapons, basically a draw
Who was Douglas MacArthur?
The supreme ally commander in the Pacific
Who developed Island Hopping?
Douglas MacArthur and Chester Nimitz
What was the island hopping strategy?
It was saying if Japan has fortified all these Pacific islands with many men and said fight to death, we just leave them there, we just go from island to island, we don't need every little piece of island.
What were the three big islands that the allies wanted to control in the Pacific?
Philippines, Okinawa and Iwo Jima
Why was controlling the Philippines so important?
significant in controlling shipping lanes into big countries
Why was controlling Iwo Jima and Okinawa so important?
thought process is that we need to invade Japan which means you need air bases in Japan, they want these two because they are large islands and can launch planes easier and get more materials from these places because of large space.
With the allied invasion coming, what does Japan do?
They turn to a desperate approach called Kamikaze
What is Kamikaze?
a suicide mission where planes will drive themselves into the American ships.
What was the Manhattan Project?
Operation for creating atomic bomb
Describe how Kamikaze was set up.
-pilots were locked in,
-couldn't eject, -bombs were welded onto planes,
-couldn't release, -only had fuel to come one way
What is the history of Japan with Kamikaze?
Kamikaze comes from when Japan would be invaded by Genghis Khan awhile back, and typhoon blows up Sea of Japan and destroys Mongols. Go to Korea, and try again and a typhoon happens again. Kamikaze is spirit of the wind, which is protecting them, became something supernatural. Fast-forward 400 years, here comes US, everything is indicating we come in, and odds a third typhoon is unlikely.
Why did the Japanese do Kamikaze?
to show they are crazy enough to do this, and because everything is indicating we come in, and odds a third typhoon is unlikely, Japan shows US they are crazy, they can negotiate, and try to say Japan has defended their country, and allies say that Japan is crazy,.
How was Japan invaded by the allies?
took 1 million allies to invade, now that it was over in Europe, all allies helped us
What was the issue for the allies after Kamikaze?
estimate at this time would be 3 more years of war, allies needed a better way to finish the job.
Who was head of Manhattan project?
What was the scientific theory used creating the bombs?
They used ideas of Einstein, theory of relativity, if you split the atom, tremendous amounts of energy will be released, heat energy in particular.
What is Einstein's theory of relativity?
Who was the first scientist to create the bomb and where did he create it?
Enrico Fermi at University of Chicago.
Why was there major fear of Fermi doing this?
it could cause total death by splitting atoms.
Looking at Fermi, Oppenheimer, and Einstein, what is the irony about the three bomb inventors?
-Yamamoto saw our diversity as a weakness, but really it is a strength
-Oppenheimer is of German descent
-Einstein is a German-Jew who escaped Holocaust and went to US.
-Enrico Fermi is Italian
-These people are from the other Axis countries and are going to bomb Japan.
What was the cost of time and money on the atomic bomb?
Cost was 3 years, 37 installations, 120,000 people, $2B, major people across the country working on this.
Where was the location of the nuclear test bomb?
What was the question that rose after the test bomb?
Should we use it or not? If so, how should we?
What was done to see what should be done with the bombs?
A survey of scientists
What were the survey's results on the bomb?
-15%-use it the most efficient way
-46%-military target in Japan
-2%-do not use it
What would be the effects of using the bomb in the most efficient way?
To end the war-drop onto Tokyo, rest of Japan fights to death, no negotiating, however, too many people die, almost too harsh
What would be the effects of a demonstration of the bomb?
give them another demonstration and do it for American media, and find its way to Japan-proof it will not work because -We already gave them a demonstration at Hiroshima and then at Nagasaki was the real thing, so they shouldn't waste it, people said we used in a way the war could be helped
What would be the effects of a public demonstration of the bomb?
give them a demonstration, bring them out to an island and show them what they will do to them and threaten them if they don't surrender.
What was the argument for dropping the bombs?
-Why would you not save millions of people with something that costed that much, and the word was out about it, so they should use it while they had them where they wanted them.
Why did the US quickly try to create this new form of technology?
Germans were less than a year behind with their bombs, but they surrendered, many thought they would develop one, so we tried to get ahead of them and we did.
What was the nickname for the Hiroshima bomb?
What was the nickname for the Nagasaki bomb?
What were the two bombs made of?
Compare the two nuclear reactions of the bombs.
-The Uranium bomb brings the elements together and splits the atom which created energy
-The Plutonium bomb was two explosions, needed a fusion reaction which sucks in.
What was the plane and pilot that dropped Hiroshima?
Enola Gay, manned by Paul Tibit
How much did the bombs kill?
When did Japan surrender?
August 13, 1945 on VJ Day
Describe the Japanese surrender.
Hirohito would not surrender, has his General on USS Missouri surrender to MacAurthur, Truman and Hirohito not involved with surrender.