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Who did Kennedy race against in his election?

Richard Nixon


When did Kennedy get elected?



What was so special about the 1960 debate?

It was the first televised presidential debate.


Explain the Presidential quality of leadership.

-having public speaking skills in debates and campaigns
-confident demeanor


Compare Kennedy's and Nixon's demeanor during the 1960 debate.

Kennedy had the confident demeanor, was nervous, but stayed calm. Nixon did not know what to do with his hands, he was sweating and was very nervous and it showed.


Explain the Presidential quality of political experience.

-Problem Solving
-What have you done and passed


What were some of Kennedy and Nixon's past political experiences?

-Kennedy making call when MLK is in jail, Nixon met with Castro led to Operation Zapata
-Both entered HR in 1946, Kennedy elected to Senate in 1952, has served on multiple committees.
-Nixon from California, elected to Senate in 1950, VP for Eisenhower from 1952-1960


Who gets the political experience advantage and why?

Nixon because he was VP, been in Oval Office, been part of problem solving with Eisenhower.


What was Nixon's biggest foreign policy feat?

He debated Nikita Khrushchev in the kitchen debate.


When Nixon was running for President, what did a reporter ask Eisenhower and how did he reply to it?

Eisenhower was asked by a reporter can you give us advice that he received from Nixon and ran with it and how it panned out, how to evaluate Nixon’s ability, Eisenhower said if you give me a week I can think of one.


What are the effects of Eisenhower's interview answer about Nixon?

It could hurt Nixon's cause.


How did Nixon reply to Eisenhower's interview answer about him?

Nixon says Eisenhower was kidding, Eisenhower never explained himself, Nixon felt it was President’s ultimate decision, even if he gets the edge, not much of one.


Who had the education advantage in the election?



Where did JFK originally apply for college? Did it work out?

He applied to Princeton, but because of an injury, he did not go there.


Where did JFK go to undergraduate college?



What activities was Nixon involved with?

-football team
-baseball team
-track team
-debate team


How did JFK graduate from Harvard?

with graduated honors international relations degree


Where did JFK go to school secondly?



After Stanford, where did JFK go?

London School of Economics


What was JFK's senior thesis at Harvard and what was it about?

Called Why England Slept; talks about appeasement


What was Kennedy's second book?

Profiles in Courage


What did he win for Profiles in Courage?

he won Pulitzer prize, highest literary prize in country


What was JFK's IQ?



What is Charisma?

looks speak out with how people judge you, are you likable


What is EQ?

emotional quotion


What does EQ measure for a person?

It is a far better predictor for success than IQ, measures your ability to empathize, your ability to measure with someone else, are you liked


What is a political platform?

political party, views on politics


What is the education measure?

A measure of intelligence and success, determination.


Where did Nixon go to undergraduate college?

Whittier College in CA


After Whittier, where did Nixon go?

Duke Law School


What rank did Nixon graduate at his schools?

2nd at Whittier
3rd at Duke


What was Nixon's IQ?



What was the big opportunity that Nixon had that he turned down?

He got a full academic scholarship to Harvard, but turned it down.


Why did Nixon turn down Harvard and go to Whittier?

His father owned a business near where he lived in California, and Whittier was much closer than Harvard. His family needed the help.


What was Kennedy's political platform?

Moderate Liberal


What is a moderate liberal platform?

supports social programs, government is the solution to problems, issues such as civil rights, economy, Cold War, wants more change than conservatives


How did JFK's political platform affect his campaigning?

e in 1960, relative peace and prosperity, he wants it to reach out to everyone, he says Americans are good, but we could make the country even better for all Americans.


What was Nixon's political platform?

moderate conservative


What is the platform of a moderate conservative?

government is not the answer, needs a smaller government, smaller taxes, more laissez faire, let businesses run themselves, let people take ownership and responsibility


How did Nixon's political platform affect his campaigning?

he is a candidate of keeping the status quo, continue to do the things we have done to make American better, very little changing should take place


What is political honesty?

look at political background, have they cheated how they trust everyone


How does American society usually look at honesty and scandals?

we often give trust until we catch someone doing something wrong


What were some of JFK's issues?

No major known scandals, but addicted to painkillers, back problem, washes them down with alcohol, had numerous extra-marital affairs,


Why does JFK have the edge when it comes to trust?

Nobody knew about his issues


What was Nixon's scandal?

Checker's speech


What was the checker's speech?

he had taken illegal campaign contributions, bribery for money, taking personal checks and bribes


What did Eisenhower do after he found out about Nixon's briberies?

Eisenhower drops him from ticket.


How does Nixon respond to Eisenhower dropping him from the ticket?

Nixon says give me a chance, goes on TV and says he is modest, opens up bank records and has never been rich, only personal gift is his dog


How does society respond to Nixon's reaction of Eisenhower's dropping of him?

everyone likes Nixon for this


After America liked Nixon for his reaction to Eisenhower's comments, what did Eisenhower do?

Eisenhower kept him on ticket


Explain the Presidential quality of military experience and why it's important.

so you are able and unafraid to go to war, if they have shown courage, then they have been there and can get ability this way.


Explain JFK's military experience.

served in WWII Navy, lieutenant commander, failed physical to go to Army, had his dad pull strings to get in


What was Kennedy's biggest role in WWII?

controlling the PT 109


What did Kennedy do with the PT 109?

boat in Pacific, broke in half by Japanese destroyer, he gets his crew to an empty island in Pacific, swam to island, swims out to shipping lanes to reduce his crew


What did Kennedy receive after his WWII actions?

He was a war hero, earns Purple Heart and Marine Corps Medal.


What was Nixon's role in WWII?

WWII Navy, lieutenant commander, serves in logistics and supply not combat


Why did Nixon not serve in combat in WWII?

He was a quaker, and quakers were opposed to direct war.


Who had the edge in military experience?

Kennedy received more popularity because of his amazing sotry, but many people debated that Nixon had advantage because he supplied war goods and that played a big part also.


What is the Presidential quality of family?

personal life, background


What is the Presidential quality of religion?

It is a factor if it alters political views and how they relate to others' views


What is the Presidential quality of Vice President?

who is helping them as their running mate


How did the two candidates make a balancing ticket with who they chose as their VP's?

both candidates get balancing ticket with social class mixing, and also geographic balancing. Johnson was middle class from Texas, Lodge Jr. was a wealthy man from Massachusetts.


Describe JFK's family upbringing.

wealthy and powerful family, politically connected, millionaires, Irish, Boston family, Father was US ambassador to UK during WWII, maternal grandfather was mayor of Boston and representative 3 times.


Who was JFK's wife and kids?

John Jr.-son


How was Jackie Kennedy used well by JFK as a "trophy wife"?

people liked her as first lady, JFK had enemies, but Jackie had charm, style and taste, her EQ would be very high, she could relate well with others, and valued helping the poor very much.


Describe Kennedy's religion.

Catholic-only Catholic President so far


What did people think Kennedy's religious beliefs would lead to?

Some thought he would take order from Pope


How did Kennedy respond to what people though of his religion and how it could affect his political views?

He said this would not be an issue. He overwhelmingly wins Catholic voters’ votes.


Who was Kennedy's VP?

Lyndon B. Johnson


Describe Nixon's family upbringing.

Came from working class, dad owned a small food shop in Yorba Linda, CA


What did Nixon do at Whittier college that led him to take action?

He tried to join a frat with rich kids, tried to join, but was denied


How did Nixon respond to being rejected by the fraternity?

he set up a rival fraternity for working class kids


Who did America like for the social class advantage?

Nixon because Americans like working class that anyone can grow up with American Dream


Who was Nixon's wife and kids?

Tricia and Julie-daughters


Why was having a young family important for Nixon running for President?

It was big to America because of baby boom and people could relate to this.


Describe the respect Nixon and Kennedy had for each other and how this respect tied into Nixon's religion.

he never made a campaign issue about Kennedy’s religion, they were good friends, they respected each other, he never asked for a recount.


Who was Nixon's VP?

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.


What was the percentage count for the popular vote?



What was the electoral count for 1960's election?



What was so special about the popular vote?

It was only about 100,000 votes in between Kennedy and Nixon; one of the closest popular votes ever.


What was the Kennedy Administration compared to?



What was so special about Kennedy's inaugural speech?

-Inaugural speech was very quotable speech
-His message was to get freedom for the world
-Proposes a vision what America and the world should be


What is the play Camelot about?

The legend of King Arthur


Why was Kennedy's USA compared to Arthur's Camelot?

-it is somewhat of an ideal kingdom, very prosperous and strong kingdom
-If the kingdom is Camelot, Our Camelot is the USA
-Most times are good in Camelot, very similar to Kennedy’s vision for America.


Who is JFK in Camelot?

King Arthur


Why is JFK compared to King Arthur?

Background is similar, education levels are impressive, war hero, courageous, smart, noble, nice family and wife, he is a good public speaker, uses quotable phrases.


What are the Knights Called in Camelot?

Knights of the Round Table


Who is JFK's cabinet in Camelot?

Knights of the Round Table


Why is Kennedy's cabinet compared to the knights in Camelot?

Multiple knights under King Arthur: Galahad, Lancelot, etc, very loyal to him, table is round because everyone is equal.


What is the name of JFK's appointed cabinet members?

The best and the brightest


What is typical of a President when picking their cabinet? Did JFK use this system?

Usually Presidents use spoils system and pick those who are loyal to you in your campaign as your cabinet. JFk did not use this however.


How did Kennedy form his cabinet?

He forms his cabinet by finding the brightest minds in America, best educated people, not worried about party loyalty, experience. They problem-solve together, all are very creative in a room together


Who did Kennedy appoint as Secretary of State?

Dean Rusk


Describe Dean Rusk's background.

Went to Cal-Berkeley, achieved as a Rhodes scholar (most prestigious scholarship, you can study for a year at Oxford in England), part of political think tank called Rockefeller Foundation


Who did Kennedy appoint Secretary of Defense?

Robert McNamara


Describe McNamara's background.

went to Cal-Berkeley Law School-CEO of Ford Motor Company, served for statistics department in WWII, a Republican


How was McNamara recruited by Kennedy?

Kennedy first asked him, McNamara turned him down, did not even vote for Kennedy, Kennedy really wanted McNamara to help, and talked him into being Secretary of Defense


Why was a having a good Secretary of Defense so important at the time?

they need to create a well-supplied, well-trained military in case the Cold War got out of hand


Who did Kennedy appoint as Secretary of the Treasury?

C. Douglas Dillon


Describe Dillon's background.

went to Harvard, literature and history, made millions as an investment banker on Wall Street in NYC


Who did Kennedy appoint as Attorney General?

Robert Kennedy (brother)


Who was Bobby Kennedy compared to in Camelot?

Lancelot because he was the most loyal, prosperous, young man at the Round Table (the cabinet).


Describe Bobby Kennedy's background.

JFK's brother, went to Harvard, Virginia Law School


Who was appointed as National Security Advisor?

McGeorge Bundy


Describe Bundy's background.

he went to Yale, dean of students at Harvard, was a Republican


Who was appointed as Domestic Affairs Advisor?

Arthur Schlesinger


Describe Schlesinger's background.

Harvard graduate, was in OSS, predecessor to CIA in WWII, most liberal member of the cabinet.


Who was Kennedy's speechwriter?

Ted Sorenson


Describe Ted Sorenson's background.

graduated from Nebraska in Law School, graduated 1st in his class, wrote the very quotable lines in Kennedy's speeches


Who was Sorenson compared to in Camelot?

would be Merlin, like a wizard, very different because of his education and style


What was Sorenson's nickname and why did it come about?

The magic man; Kennedy set the vision for what America should be, Sorenson communicated this.


What was hub structure?

Kennedy’s way of meeting with cabinet and making decisions.


What does hub mean?

Hub is covering the central part of the main source.


How was Kennedy's hub structure set up?

His structure was the best and brightest would go out, come back, give him information, ask for opinions, and then leave. Kennedy would make the final decision.


How was the hub style a positive method to solve problems?

There should be good information, good different perspectives, very efficient, no debating about information, it is easy for only one person to make final decision, especially with timing with foreign policy issues.


Why did it seem logical for JFK to make the final decision anyway?

Everyone expects the President to make decisions, they are under most pressure and will take praise or criticism no matter what.


Who was the member Kennedy trusted the most?

Bobby Kennedy


What were the three largest domestic problems at the time Kennedy was President?

-civil rights
-space race with Soviets


How was poverty a big domestic issue during the Kennedy administration?

-18.1% of people were below poverty line
-39% were poor or working poor


How was the space race a big domestic issue during the Kennedy administration?

-Soviets had launched Sputnik (1957)
-Yuri Gagarin was first man in space (1961)
-ahead of us in space race so Kennedy decides to send people to the moon


What two books were written during the Kennedy administration about poverty in America?

-Michael Harrington-wrote The Other America
-Kenneth Galbraith-wrote The Affluent Society


What was the poverty line at the time?

$2500 a year


Why was America shocked at these books with respect to the poverty going on?

People were shocked with how well American culture was moving and how they are progressing and good times, and people were surprised with how many people were poor. Many Americans felt this wasn't even true and asking where they are.


Why are the poor invisible to the typical American?

Poor are invisible because most people just walk by and ignore them, nobody likes to look at poor people suffering, which is unattractive. It became invisible to society.


How did the Interstate Highway program affect Amercian views of poverty?

Because of the highway not going through the poor areas of a city, people never see the poverty on an interstate.


What was Kennedy's solution to these big domestic issues?

The New Frontier


What was Kennedy's vision for starting the New Frontier?

-he believes government is the answer to solving problems (American liberalism)
-Kennedy’s plan for getting the government to fix all of our issues.
-Extended benefits of New Deal (FDR) and the Fair Deal (HST)


What is popular mandate? How did it relate to Kennedy?

popular vote; he lacked this in the 1960 election


How did the lack of popular vote for Kennedy make it hard to build up the New Frontier?

-Made this difficult to get his new frontier programs through Congress
-Many American people were against those choices because almost half of America voted for Nixon
-The numbers were not completely in his favor


What is mandate?

Support of the American people


Do some of the New Frontier programs get passed through?

Kennedy is able to get some passed, but Johnson gets more of these through, as Johnson will be able to pull through after Kennedy dies.


Why is Kennedy nervous about continuing Brinksmanship?

Kennedy is nervous about Brinksmanship because “the world is a different place”-we have tremendous power and do we end poverty or end life


What is Kennedy's conundrum with his foreign policy and how to keep up in the Cold War?

He is unsure if he could be too strong because he does not want a nuclear war, but if he is too soft, the Soviets could take advantage of us.


If Brinksmanship isn't the answer, what does Kennedy create?

Kennedy tries a different way of Containment, called Flexible Response, idea is options of what strategies to take if there is an attack or a major war-like event going on.


What are the foreign war procedures from weakest to strongest?

1. Appeasement
2. Propaganda
3. Political sanction
4. Humanitarian aid
5. Negotiations and Treaties
6. Alliances
7. Advisors
8. Economic aid
9. Economic sanctions
10. Military aid
11. Saber-rattling
12. CIA Coverting Work
13. War by Proxy
14. Guerrilla warfare
15. Conventional warfare
16. Nuclear warfare


What is appeasement and what are its benefits and risks?

you can let it go, doesn’t matter, similar to Hungary in 1956, the risk is that if it progresses, they push on the issue and they keep going well and keep beating you while you do nothing.


What is nuclear war? What are its benefits and risks?

strongest action you can take, we have ability to do that, we had over 1100 weapons in our arsenal. Risk is we essentially could end the world with that power


What is conventional warfare? What are its benefits and risks?

like WWII, tanks, planes, soldiers, bombs, risk is it could escalate, very costly both monetary and with lives and property, economic transitions as well.


What are negotiations? What are their benefits and risks?

ike treaties, have conventions, international summit, etc. Risk is it could escalate, could take some time, may not be completely fair and could take a long time to compromise. Mildly weak approach.


What is third party war? What are its benefits and risks?

mildly aggressive approach, have someone else do it for us such as UK, France, etc. Risk is is it strong enough, do you lose?


What is economic aid? What are its benefits and risks?

close to middle-such as Marshall Plan-how you can use economic aid to influence politics of war, risk is finances.


What is saber-rattling? What are its benefits and risks?

military threat, risk is all out bombing war, you threaten and they retaliate. If they launch pre-emptive strike, you better be willing to follow through with the threat.


What is CIA operational warfare? What are its benefits and risks?

stronger than saber-rattling, weaker than war by proxy-Operations such as Ajax and Zapata, overthrowing a government or killing a leader, risk is being caught, retaliation, and if the plan could work.


What are economic sanctions? What are their benefits and risks?

embargoes, increasing tariffs, how willing will they be to pay price, risk is how will your economy fare


What is Guerrilla warfare? What are its benefits and risks?

committing forces, lower cost however, risk is it could escalate. Almost as strong as conventional warfare.


What is war propaganda? What are its benefits and risks?

weak, but could work, like political sanctions, showing bad press against certain countries and telling them they should stop. Only risk is if other country comes back at you with threats and other propaganda against you.


What is fighting through allies? What are its benefits and risks?

NATO, METO, SEATO, if one declares war, then the allies will fight with them.


What is humanitarian aid? What are its benefits and risks?

Kennedy will start Peace Corps, we give them food, medicine, send people in to help built schools, hospitals, etc. One of Kennedy’s best creations. Risk is finances


What is military aid?

Give them war supplies and weapons, risk is finances


What was the concern for the United States with the trajectory of the Cuban missiles?

The flight range covered most of the eastern part of the US. However, for the long-range missiles, their target could reach nearly all of mainland US.


How did the US know about the Missiles?

National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy told Kennedy about the crisis on October 16, 1962. His words were proved because two days later an American military aircraft took many aerial view pictures of what was happening in Cuba. These pictures showed there were Soviets with a missile base in Cuba.


When did the missile crisis begin?

October 16, 1962


What were the 2 principle options presented to President Kennedy concerning the crisis?

-an air strike and/or an invasion
-a naval quarantine with a threat of further military action


What did the U-2 flight on Day 2 of the CMC indicate?

Another U-2 flight showed many more pictures of locations of more Cuban missile sites and about 16-32 real missiles in total.


What does Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko say about Soviet aid to Cuba?

It is purely a defensive aid and should not pose a threat to the United States.


What action does Secretary of State Dean Rusk favor for the CMC?

He favored the idea of a limited or “surgical” air strike with our prior political action or a warning. Many were opposed to this idea.


Explain one of the three other concerns Kennedy wanted to ask the Pentagon about the CMC.

He asked about the possibilities of a commander-type raid by using parachutes and helicopters. He wanted them to develop a plan for this, as he could use it as another resource method to fight this issue.


What option does Kennedy decide to employ for the CMC?

He decides to deploy missile units and naval units abroad.


What was ExComm?

Kennedy put himself together with his cabinet members, the CIA head, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He appointed all of these men together as a group called EXComm.


What did ExComm stand for?

Executive Committee of the National Security Council.


When did JFK speak to the nation? What was his speech about?

On October 22, Kennedy wanted to inform America about the Cuban missile crisis and how the Soviets are behind the issue. Kennedy then mentions his plan. He announces the establishment of a naval quarantine around Cuba until the Soviet Union agrees to dismantle the missile sites.


What Soviet actions threatened the naval quarantine supported by the OAS?

Soviets moved submarines into the Caribbean. Also, an oil tanker, Bucharest moved closer to Cuba.


As these threats are approaching the Carribean, what does Kennedy order for Khrushchev to do?

Kennedy orders Khrushchev to halt all Soviet ships going towards Cuba.


How does Khrushchev respond to Kennedy’s challenge and order?

Khrushchev blames Kennedy saying to him that he isn’t really declaring a quarantine, but he is rather threatening if the Soviets do not follow Kennedy’s order.


How does Kennedy respond to Khrushchev’s claim that the United States is to blame for the crisis?

Kennedy follows up with a letter to Khrushchev and says that Khrushchev does not understand what is happening and how America sees this issue. He is very unhappy with Khrushchev blaming America for this. Kennedy throughout the whole letter gives proof of how the events in Cuba went down, and it shows that the Soviets played a larger role, not the US. He wanted to show Khrushchev that is was really the Soviets’ fault for the whole crisis that America is worried about.


What role does Adlai Stevenson play in the crisis?

Adlai Stevenson, a very calm and courteous man, aggressively debated against the Soviet UN Ambassador, Valerian Zorin. He debated against him very harshly and tried to prove the Soviets were the problem with Cuba


What offer does Khrushchev make to resolve the crisis?

Khrushchev wrote Kennedy a letter trying to compromise. He says that if the United States lifts the quarantine and promises not to invade Cuba, then the missiles will be removed.


What was the private letter between Castro and Khrushchev about on day 10?

Castro asks Khrushchev to strike a nuclear weapon at the US if we were to invade into Cuba


On day 6, October 21, what does Kennedy do about the crisis?

He holds a National Security Council Meeting. He wanted the others at the meeting to discuss a plan in case the Soviets could generate a planned response at the US if we tried to attack the situation in Cuba.


How does Kennedy respond to Khrushchev's compromise?

Kennedy likes the idea and will agree to it, but he strongly states to Khrushchev that the missiles must be removed first, and if they are completely removed, the US will end the quarantine and not think of invading


What more does Khrushchev suddenly demand from the United States in his compromise?

He asks for the removal of the obsolete Jupiter missiles, which are placed in Turkey because of how close those are to Russia.


What was the result of the private meeting between Bobby Kennedy and Anatoly Dobrynin on day 12?

The results of the meeting are successful and this confirms that the Soviets will remove the missiles in Cuba, which will be done under UN supervision. To follow-up, the US pledges they will not invade Cuba, and the US will also remove the Jupiter missiles in Turkey.


What was the date of the JFK assassination?

November 22, 1963


Where was JFK shot?

Dallas, TX


Why did JFK go to Dallas?

He wanted to campaign in Texas to try to win re-election in 1964, as he was to make a speech there and have a parade to gain popularity.


Where did the Kennedy's plane arrive and when?

At abou 11:30 AM at Love Field in Dallas.


Who went to Dallas with JFK?

Jackie, VP Johnson, and Lady Bird Johnson


How did the Kennedys exit the plane?

John had Jackie come off first because of her popularity. As everyone was cheering for her, he could acquire some of the praise as well by coming off right after her.


What was the proposed parade route for JFK?

Through downtown Dallas to a luncheon where he would make a speech.


How did the Kennedys meet Governor Connally?

JFK shook his hand and Connally tipped his hat to Jackie


Who was governor of Texas during the JFK assassination?

John Connally


What was the forecasted weather, but what really did the weather turn out to be?

It was supposed to rain, but it turned to be clear and sunny that day as the storm passed on


How did Kennedy respond to the nice weather that day?

He wanted to put the bulletproof roof down on the Presidential convertable. He also did this to be shown on the parade so others could see his face.


How many people showed up to the parade?

Many people wanted to see Kennedy


What did Kennedy do on the route?

He waved to people, thanked them for support, and sometimes stopped to shake hands with some people.


After all the support Kennedy got at the parade, what did Connally say to him?

"You can't say Dallas doesn't love you."


How was the car caravan set up at the parade?

Front car-Secret Service Driver, Connally, John and Jackie in back seat
Second Car-secret service
Third car-Johnsons
Fourth car-Secret Service


Who shot Kennedy?

Lee Harvey Oswald


Where did Oswald work?

Texas School Book Depository on the 6th floor, right corner


What plaza was kennedy shot at?

Dealey plaza


What streets in Dealey plaza were traveled on?

He went right onto Houston
Left on Elm Street towards the Town Hall


What kind of rifle was used to kill Kennedy?

An Italian Carcano bolt-action rifle


How many shots in how much time were shot at JFK?

3 shots in 5.6 seconds


What street were all three bullets shot at?



What happens to oswald's first shot?

It misses JFK hits the street, he reacts but does not see anything. It nips a civilian James Tague in the cheek. Kennedy looks to the right and up and Connolly looks to his right and turns.


Why did the first shot miss?

Some think that he missed it to get a reaction to make people distracted or some thought Oswald was nervous at first.


What was the magic bullet?

The second shot from Oswald


Who filmed the three shots?

Abraham Zapruder


What happens to Oswald's second bullet?

It creates seven wounds between JFK and Connolly; it enters JFK's back, goes through his throat, it then enters Connolly under his right armpit, through his chest, comes back out, hits his wrist. Kennedy holds his throat, while Connolly breaks his 5th rib and wrist.


How do people react to the second bullet?

Surprisingly, not much, even the Secret service did not react much


What happened to Oswald's third shot?

It was the kill shot; hit Kennedy in the head as his head explodes.


How did everyone react to the third shot?

Jackie tried to put his head back together and was calling for the secret service, as they did not react until she called for them.


What happens next after the third shot?

Secret service throws him into vehicle that takes him to Parkland hospital. He dies about 30 minutes later at Parkland hospital.


Where and why did Oswald shoot Kennedy where he shot him?

He shot him from behind the head because nobody could see him so well and not draw much attention.


After Oswald shot kennedy, what does he do next?

He quickly hides the rifle from his office and sprints downstairs to the eating lounge on the second floor.


What happens to Oswald in the lunch room?

He is asked if he saw someone shoot JFK, has "no idea who did it"


After he is asked the question in the lunch room, what does Oswald do?

He leaves to go to his house, changes clothes, and grabs a gun which he puts in his pocket.


What was the description of the shooter according to Dallas police?

white man, mid 30s, 5'10'', slender bill


As he leaves his house, what happens to Sowald?

Tibbett, a Dallas policeman pulls up at him and asks him if he is suspicious, he refuses, police asks him again, and he shoots him with his gun and runs away


Where does Oswald go after shooting Tibbett?

movie theater


Why did Oswald go to the movie theater?

It is dark, public, people are focused on movie, not people, and not many people are there because everyone is worried about the killing of JFK


What happened to Oswald when he went to the theater?

He rushed into the theater and did not pay for his ticket.


What happened to Oswald when he skipped paying at the theater?

A woman caught him stealing and called the police and gave them the details which were the same details of the JFK shooter, so the police did show up.


Where was Oswald arrested?

At the movie theater


How many cops showed up at the theater?



What was the other evidence found of Oswald at the Book Depository?

They found finger prints on boxes where the gun was hidden near and his palm print on the rifle.


Where was he taken off to after being arrested?

To Dallas Jail


Where was he transferred from Dallas Jail to?

Dallas Prison


What happened during his transferral of prisons?

He was in an underground parking garage, people were around him and then he was shot and killed.


Who killed Oswald?

Jack Ruby


Who was Jack Ruby?

A Dallas night club owner who wanted to avenge the death of JFK


What gun did Ruby use to kill Oswald?

38 caliber range gun


Where did Ruby's shot hit Oswald?

Right in the gut; went straight through in and out


As a result of Oswald's killing, what was the ruling on what would he go through?

There was no trial because he was dead.


Where was JFK's corpse taken?

Love Field


What was the issue of taking JFK's body away?

It was not supposed to be taken back to Maryland for an autopsy, it was illegal for the secret service to take it away from Parkland Hospital without real permission.


What happened on the plane before it took off from Love Field?

-Johnson took oath of office next to Lady Bird and Jackie
-Body was rushed out as an escape to get it to the autopsy


Where was JFK buried after the autopsy?

Arlington Cemetery


What was Oswlad's background

-High school dropout
-Average military skills
-Discharged from marines because of family hardships


What was Oswald's motivation for killing JFK?

He called himself Communist


How did Oswald receive more motivation for killing Kennedy by being a Communist?

In 1959, he went to the USSR and defects them, but he was treated with suspicion as Soviets cannot trust him, he comes back to the US in 1962.


What committee did Oswald form?

Fair play for Cuba Committee


What was the Fair play for Cuba Committee?

A pro-Castro organization


After the FPFCC spot, what happened to Oswald next?

He got a job in Dallas, he saw this as a golden opportunity to kill JFK


When arrested, what does Oswald claim himself as?



What were two conspiracy theories concerning Oswald?

-Did the CIA know about him going to the USSR
-Was the secret service's slow reaction to the gunshots fixed


What does FLSA stand for?

Fair Labor Standards Act


When was the Fair Labor Standards Act passed?



What is the Fair Labor Standards Act?

Increased minimum wage from $1 to $1.25


Why did The New Frontier create the Fair Labor Standards Act?

-To decrease the number of those above the poverty line
-The 25% increase made more people go above the poverty line


What was the risks with creating the Fair Labor Standards Act?

Prices go up, poverty line goes up, or there is a higher risk of being laid off a job


What is the OHA stand for?

Omnibus Housing Act


When was the Omnibus Housing Act passed?



What did the Omnibus Housing Act do?

-Spent $3.19 B on mass transit systems, and urban renewal projects and housing
-This established the Federal Housing Authority


Why was the Omnibus Housing Act passed?

-Cities needed to be renewed because of their poverty
-The white plight phenomenon was an issue because he wanted to vitalize inner cities.


What was the white plight phenomenon?

-When white people left inner cities and took all their money with them to the suburbs
-There were less taxes in the suburbs, mall is moved
-Poor and minorities are left in inner cities


What was the risk with the Omnibus Housing Act?

More taxes have to be paid in order to draw money back to the cities.


When was the Manpower Development and Training Act passed?



What was the Manpower Development and Training Act?

Created a three year program for vocational education


What was the Trade Expansion Act?

Reduced tariffs with European countries by 50%


What was the Trade Expansion Act's nickname?

Kennedy Round


When was the Trade Expansion Act passed?



Why was the Trade Expansion Act passed?

-Lower manufacturing was going on
-Rate of inflation could go down
-cost of imports go down
-if we lower them for Europe, they can lower their tariffs for us
-Europe can afford our stuf and we make more money from it


What was the Area Redevelopment Act?

Federal government spent $394 million as an economic stimulus package and $4.5 million on more vocational programs


When was the Equal Pay Act passed?



What was the Equal Pay Act?

Civil rights bill which guaranteed equal pay for equal work


Why was the Equal Pay Act passed?

To get rid of discrimination more, to help the minorities find their way


When was the National Defense Education Act passed?



What was the National Defense Education Act?

Spent $731 for additional vocational education training. This had been started in 1958 under Eisenhower.


Which of the three Acts passed by Kennedy are very similar?

-Manpower Development and Training Act
-Area Redevelopment Act
-National Defense Education Act


How were the MDTA, ARA, and NDEA similar?

All are giving toward vocational educations for jobs to give young people skills for these jobs. They were all also used to bring change to the American economy in becoming a service economy. It was also for people to mandate higher salaries in the future.


How did Kennedy want to change the base of the American economy?

He wanted it to change from a manufacturing economy to a service economy.


What was the DUA?

Department of Urban Affairs


What was the Department of Urban Affairs?

Dealt with urban housing, the cabinet met about urban issues


What is the Department of Urban Affairs called now?

Housing and urban Development


Why was the Department of Urban Affairs created?

To help with rebuilding urban areas, while keeping the money used and the procedures regulated and making sure the rebuilding process is in full control.


What was the NASA Funding Increase?

This became the Apollo program, goal was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade.


Why was the NASA Funding Increase created?

So we could beat the Soviets in the space race. It did work, as we went to the moon in 1969


What was the Social Security Extension also called?



What was the Social Security Extension?

Lowered the age at which a person could collect Social Security to age 62 from the previous age of 65, which extended healthcare coverage for the elderly as well.


Why was the SSE created?

-To give more jobs to younger people
-Older people could retire earlier with less to worry about with saving
-to replace the top pay scale with younger people who do not work for as much yet
-younger people have more work energy and bring new trends that have to be made sooner or later
-baby boom people were coming of working age, so jobs had a high demand


What was the effect from the New Frontier in terms of unemployment rate?

It improved from 7% in 1960 to 5.7% in 1963


What was the effect from the New Frontier in terms of inflation rate?

It moderately increased from 1.07% to 1.24%. This showed the economy did not grow much.


What happened to the National Debt after the New Frontier?

We would run our first non-war/non-depression debt. It totalled $1B by 1963


When was the Civil Rights Act passed?



What act followed the CRA?

Voting Rights Act


After WWII, where was Laos and what was its goal?

part of French Indochina, big push for self-determination to free colonies


When did Laos become Independent? Why was it not official for a few years?

Laos become technically independent in 1950, but not really until 1954 until French lose at Dien Bien Phu at the Geneva conference, when all the nations became totally free.


How is the cultural identity in Laos?

Many Buddhists, great trade empires in SE Asia. Good sense of identity there.


What is the social problem in Laos at the time?

There is a big split between rich and poor, most of population is a poor peasant farmer, small part of population is rich land owners connected to the French.


What emerges out of this rich/poor social conflict in Laos?

a 3 part Civil War


Who are the three princes of Laos?

Prince Souvanna Phouma
Prince Souphanouvong
Prince Boun Oum


Who is Prince Souvanna Phouma? What part of the war is he on?

Socialist/Nationalist, not connected to China, looking at having an independent state in Laos


Who is Prince Souphanouvong? What part of the war is he on?

A Communist, head of Pathet Lao


What is the Pathet Lao?

The patriotic front of Laos; communists linked to China, they get support from Mao in China, similar to Vietminh


Who was Prince Boun Oum? What part of the war he is he on?

Royalist (Pro-west)-aligned himself with French and thus the US


What is Kennedy's plan with dealing with Laos?

We negotiate-Kennedy would negotiate a coalition government, we use the British as mediators. We setup a government in which all three parties are well-represented.


What did Kennedy do to make sure the Laos coalition government is going smoothly?

Kennedy also sends in about 200 advisors


Did Kennedy's plan in Laos work? Explain.

No, Pathet Lao won this Civil War, as the government plan worked for only 2 years.


After the Pathet Lao wins the Laos Civil War, what does the US do?

Nothing because we are already fighting a conventional war in Vietnam and have too much to worry about.


What was the crisis of Iraq? When did this begin?

In 1958, a coup in Iraq overthrew the Hashemite Dynasty in Iraq


Who was leader of the overthrowing Iraqi coup?

Abdel Karim Kassem


Why was the US so concerned about this in Iraq?

French support the Hashemites, and wanted to keep it together, and Kaseem then aligns plans with the Soviets. We have to worry about the oil, our ally Israel, and containment.


What is Kennedy's plan for the crisis in Iraq?

We encourage a counter-coup led by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif.


What does Arif do in Iraq?

Arif we will support against Kassem’s government. He forms Baath party in Iraq, which was supported by US.


What happens to Arif 2 years later?

Arif dies in helicopter crash


What are the effects of Arif's death?

-replaced by brother Abdul Rahman Arif
-Baath party turns to a terror campaign.
-Kills off many people such as Socialists, Communists, and Intellectuals because they are so smart to correct


Who replaces Abdul Rahman Arif and who comes in after him?

Replaced by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakur, led the Baath until 1979, when he is replaced by Sadam Hussein


How has the Iraq we tried to make better become our problem?

The terrorism was not chosen by us, because of the helicopter crash. We did not put direct Baath party in power, but they were created all because we wanted the oil.


What is our first crisis with Cuba?

Castro overthrows Batista, problem because he is a Communist based on Nixon, and we had good relations with Cuba, and now they are so close to us as Communists.


What was kennedy's plan to fix the first issue in Cuba?

Operation Zapata


What was Operation Zapata?

Send in the Labrigada, Cuban exiles, we give them humanitarian aid, they land in the Bay of Pigs.


What is the problem with the Operation?

Kennedy cancelled Air and Naval support they were promised after, and invasion fails.


What happens to the Labrigada after they try to invade?

The Labrigada are mostly captured, over 1100 are captured, hundreds are killed.


How does America react to our loss in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs?

Lots of criticism of Kennedy not being willing to win in Cuba. Even from military, they think Kennedy is too soft and not willing to make the hard decisions.


After we lose to Cuba the first time, what happens to Cuba?

Cuba remains Communist with Castro in charge, become untouchable. Forms alliance with Soviets.


Describe how Berlin got to where it it since the start of the Cold War.

Cold War, Berlin Airlift because of cutoff trade, Berlin is divided in four occupation zones, then Soviets blockade road and rail between east and west Berlin. It works, Soviets back down, for next 10 years, Berlin was off limits, line had been drawn.


When JFK is elected, what do the Soviets think of us?

They can take advantage of Kennedy because he is soft


Who is the head of Russia during the Kennedy administration?

Nikita Khrushchev


Who told the Soviets that Kennedy was soft?



What do Khrushchev and Kennedy do, as Khrushchev is trying to control Berlin?

The two meet in Vienna in 1961. Kennedy wants to end the Cold War, Kruschchev thinks it is his chance to get Berlin.


What goes on in Vienna 1961 during the meeting?

Khrushchev turns the tables on Kennedy on about how he should get Berlin.


On his way leaving the meeting in Vienna, what does Kennedy say?

When he leaves, he comments to a reporter about it’s a cold, long winter, we must be willing to fight, no way you can appease here and give them Berlin


What happens at the first initial fight at the Berlin line?

When they go to the line with tanks, their tanks are outnumbered by Soviets on the other side of the line. Both sides stopped for now, but there is lots of fear this could get active soon.


What is Kennedy's plan to get Berlin?



Why does Kennedy want to saber-rattle the Soviets?

Soviets are saber-rattling them


How does Kennedy carry out his saber-rattling plan?

Kennedy will increase draft quota, deploy more forces into Germany, go from 8000 to a million, increases military budget by $3B.


What else does Kennedy do to fight in Berlin?

Goes to Berlin and makes a propaganda speech, “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech.


Why does Kennedy give the Ich bin in Berliner speech?

Talks about political sanction action he can take, so Germans can see the risk he is taking.


What was the importance of Kennedy's speech?

Huge crowd at his speech, large cheers, many understood what Kennedy’s presence in their city was, Soviets are there waiting to take the city


What was the outcome of the Berlin conflict?

Construction of the Berlin Wall


Why was the Berlin wall created?

A number of people, referenced in his German speech, were using East Berlin to get into West Berlin as in East Germany it was and you could have access to the west. They created the wall so nobody would get out.


Describe the Berlin Wall.

Looked different based on where you were or on what side you were on. Had barbed wire, guard towers, with fencing and concrete layers in between.


After the Berlin Wall was built, did many escape?

No, many people were killed trying to escape, a few success stories, but those were right place, right time stories.


How did Kennedy redeem himself from the loss at Bay of Pigs?

Kennedy responds in a strong way and politically successful at the next stage in Berlin. He found that balance between too hard and too soft.


What are the three big problems in Latin America?



How is poverty a mass issue in Latin America?

poverty rates are very high, this causes level of desperation, high illiteracy rates, low standard of living


What is the main reason for why Latin American poverty cannot be solved?

unstable governments


What are Juntas?

military dictatorships that tend to control political scene in Latin America


What is the problems with Juntas and what are they leading to?

You get lots of rebellions and revolutions because of many overthrowing of people in charge, this keeps from solving problems because no investment is taking place in Latin America, the next group will either destroy it or take it when they come around, desperate people do desperate things, so some turn to Communism.


What Latin American nation is first to be Communist?



What is Cuba doing with their Communism?

They are trying to push it throughout the whole region.


What is Kennedy's answer to the Latin American issues?

New Alliance for Progress


What is the point of the New Alliance for Progress?

an economic aid package to avoid the welfare trap Latin American countries were in


What did the New Alliance for Progress ask of the Latin American nations?

We asked governments of Latin America to put in matching funds, for every dollar from US they willingly gave, those countries had to give back four dollars.


How much did we offer to those countries to stop the poverty? Did it work for them? Why or why not?

We offered a 20B dollar gift to them, but those countries don’t take it because they needed to pay back 80B dollars.


What was kennedy's backup plan for Latin America?

Peace Corps (humanitarian aid)


What is the Peace Corps?

it asks for volunteers about college graduates for a two year enlistment in Peace Corps, you work with the people and help them build things and recover with irrigation, farming, and industry, very actively involved in Latin America.


What are the issues with using the Peace Corps?

They are volunteers and a small percentage go and help out, and this only fixes the small poverty issues, not for the millions of homeless people in Latin America, very limited in impact and results.


What is the main outcome in Latin America?

Most of that money is never accessed because they do not have the money to match it, 90% of the money that is accessed goes to American companies


Why did most of the Latin American money go to American businesses?

20% of it is paid for because government is investing it


What is the other big outcome in Latin America?

Also, political want for change in governments is taking place


How is there a political want for change taking place in Latin America? What are still the issues with it?

13 nations would write Constitutions and to try and install Democratic governments, but doesn’t stop the coups and rebellions from happening.


Who is the leader of North and South Vietnam at the time?

Ho Chi Minh-north
Ngo Dinh Diem-south


Why is Vietnam divided at the 17th parallel?

French are kicked out at Dien Bien Phu


What is the NLF? Who set it up? Why was it set up?

National Liberation Front, made the Vietminh and Vietcong.


What is the difference between the Vietminh and Vietcong?

Vietminh are card carrying Communists from north, Vietcong are southern nationalists, could be Communist or not.


What is Minh trying to do with the divided Vietnam?

Unify it as one big Communist country


What does Minh's vision lead to?

each side fighting each other


What kinds of warfare do each side fight in Vietnam?

North Vietnamese Army is conventional warfare, South Vietnamese Army fights guerrilla warfare against Vietminh


What side do the US want to fight with?

South Vietnam


What is the problem with US fighting on the south side?

Vietcong are nationalists, want foreigners out and US out, and see Diem as American puppet or control dictator. Diem is really an undercover dictator.


What were MRBM's? How did they relate to the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Medium Range ballistic Missiles, could reach anywhere in southwest corner of US, even up to Washington, DC


What were IRBM's? How did they relate to the Cuban Missile crisis?

Intermediate range ballistic missile, could reach anywhere in lower 48 except NW corner


How many Soviet missiles were found in Cuba at the time by the U2 plane?

Soviets have deployed 32 MRBM and 8 IRBMs


Who manned the U2 plane and why was it so important?

They send a 1 star general to get film, this shows this film is very important, we had CIA Cuban spies, this was tracked and knew missiles were built, we just needed to prove it


What would be the issue of shooting down the Cuban missiles?

They fly so high that they would be hard to shoot down with a plane.


What were some of the Conspiracy Theories about the JFK assassination?

-Moorman photo (second gunman on side)
-Umbrella Man
-Kennedy's Neck Wound
-The Magic Bullet
-Cubans (Anti-Castro)
-Soviets (KGB)
-Cubans (Pro-Castro)
-American Mafia
-Lyndon Johnson
-The Klan (Racists)
-Military Industrial Complex


Explain the conspiracy theory of the Umbrella Man.

As the limo was passing by, Kennedy passed a man with an umbrella, and there was talk that he could have used it as a gun.


Explain he conspiracy theory of the Magic Bullet.

Many people thought that because after Connolly was shot in his wrist and broke it, there was no way he could pick up his hat, maybe another person shot him there.


Explain the conspiracy theory of the CIA.

CIA was blamed because Kennedy did not send people to help the Labrigada and it was his fault, but he blamed the CIA for it. CIA could lie to Oswald and tell him to wait or shoot, or get multiple shooters.


Explain the issue with the CIA conspiracy theory.

this is the President, would they really kill the President, would they cross that line


Explain the conspiracy theory of the American Mafia.

Kennedy’s have a rich history, some think Mafia got him elected with people in Louisiana voting for dead people’s SSNs Bobby begins crack down on organized crime, they lay low people are possibly angry with their low pay.


What was the issue with the American Mafia conspiracy theory?

why don’t you kill Bobby, it is too obvious, you get President hunting down people, Johnson and Bobby do not get along


Explain the conspiracy theory of Lyndon B. Johnson

to become next President, highly politically motivated, played no big role in decision making, so he may want to play this forward. He could miss opportunity, from Texas, Kennedy is shot in Texas, could he have contact with CIA, local police, could have influenced investigation.


What is the issue with the Johnson conspiracy theory?

if he gets caught, this is treason and execution, Republicans are trying to undermine Johnson possibly


Explain the conspiracy theory of Jackie Kennedy.

Kennedy cheated on her, has had multiple affairs, with Marilyn Monroe, who sings happy birthday to him, flaunting the affair in your face, She marries next Onassis, had a friendship with him before JFK was shot, lots of money through all the families to set something up.


What is the issue with the Jackie Kennedy conspiracy theory?

Oswald could have been trained and set up to do this to have the evidence, why would Jackie hire a hitman who misses a shot, and she was still very distraught and very sad, a better option would be a divorce than a kill.


Explain the conspiracy theory of the KKK.

Kennedy has proposed a Civil Rights Bill in DeJure equality, which could be enough motive to kill for the KKK, who has lots of weapons.


What is the issue with the KKK conspiracy theory?

Oswald does not really fit, so they would have to lie about it, could be a racist, but probably not, also, If you kill JFK, Johnson is President, he is more liberal and a better politician, and very short sided, the acts would get passed through him.


Explain the conspiracy theory of Military Industrial Complex.

Clay Shaw supported the hawks; At heart of it is money made from war in Vietnam by the Military Industrial Complex, Vietnam will be a $1M/day war, Kennedy will pull the plug, looking under confidently at it and could lose money before we went into it. These companies would lose billions because of producing war goods we did not need. Lyndon Johnson, begins to escalate our involvement in Vietnam and gives a million dollar reward, gain a President, gain a war,


Who was Clay Shaw?

mafia figure from New Orleans


What were the hawks?

people who think Kennedy is too soft on Communism, he lost Cuba, almost lost Vietnam, he needed to be stopped


Who put forth this conspiracy theory about Clay Shaw?

Jim Garrison


Who was Jim Garrison?

District Attorney from New Orleans. He will bring trial against Clay Shaw he is the man putting pieces together of shooting Kennedy with more bullets and multiple bullets.


What were some death causes of some of the witnesses that led to this being a conspiracy theory?

Suicides, murders, drug overdoses, bus/plane accidents, gunshot, etc.