Flashcards in Japan Before WWII Deck (54):
What type of country was Japan at the time?
Why was Japan feeling like the odd man out in the war?
Not European, didn't seem at first they belonged with the WWII powers, being halfway across the world and not being Fascist.
What did US do to Japan in 1854?
US attacked Japan and tried to show off our technology to them so we could form a trading pact.
What were the trade rules for imperial Japan?
-Japan was an isolated country, no trade allowed.
-Only one Dutch ship was allowed a year.
-All other foreigners were executed that were there without permission.
Describe the Shogunate Period of Japan.
A Military leader, Samurai, who are knights dressed as warriors, command an army. Worst of the Samurai is the Shogun, and his responsibility is to keep foreigners out of Japan
What did the US try to do regarding the Japanese trade laws in 1854
Commodore Matthew Perry demands we trade with them or else we bomb the island.
What was the Meiji Restoration?
Japan is the one country that can retrace their history of sun touching Mount Fuji giving birth to the island.
What happened after the US trade threat?
they went through a revolutionary period.
Who was the new emperor during the Meiji Restoration?
Emperor is back to power during this restoration, the emperor was Hirohito.
After the US trade threat, what does Japan think?
-Takes attitude that if you can’t beat them, join them.
-They realize they are really behind the western countries.
-Japan is a poor country with hardly any natural resources and need some.
-They want to become industrial.
What happened to Japan when their industrialism began to grow?
Coal use, railroads, steamships, and population shot up in numbers crazily from 1875 to 1913.
Where did Japan start getting natural resources?
both trade and stealing
What was the secondary problem for Japan when they got more industrial?
The population doubled in 50 years.
How did the population growth put more pressure on Japan?
More people need places to live, more food, and other important things.
What was the answer for the issues they were facing with population growth?
What was Japan's first major war?
Versus Russia in the Russo Japanese war in 1905.
What was the Russo-Japanese war fought for?
They fight over Korea
Why did Russia want Korea at the time?
Russia wants it because they build the trans-siberian railroad from east to west Russia. They want Korea so they can put the railroad into China.
Why did Japan want Korea at the time?
It would be for land for Japan, and other natural resources and it is across the sea of Japan so it would be close.
How does the US play a role in the Russo-Japanese War?
Teddy Roosevelt negotiates treaty in Portsmouth, NH and will win Nobel Peace Prize. It is also about China, as he wants an open door policy with China so we can trade with them.
What type of country was Japan in WWI?
Why was Japan fighting in WWI?
Germany has some possession of islands in the Pacific, and Japan wants them.
How did Japan end up after the war?
Because Japan wasn't in Europe, people are more worried about Versailles in Europe, so the Brits and French get those islands, and Japan feels neglected like Italy did. The Japanese take this as racism.
What was the Washington Conference?
Naval conference in 1921
-Addressing navies for how large each country’s navy could be
-They attacked causes of WWI.
What gets agreed upon at the Washington Conference?
It is agreed that England gets largest Navy because they are an island and have a big empire to govern and they are an imperial, industrial country.
-US is second, they have two coasts to defend, very industrial country depending on trade.
What does Japan end up with at the Washington Conference?
Japan is far down the list, and they get angry because they made the same claims as England to have a large navy.
-This is taken as bias to Europe and also racism. They are 8th because they are Asians.
What is a quota?
a limit on something
What does Japan do now under pressure regarding population?
They try to get some of the new population people out and try to send them to the US
How does the US respond to the population immigration?
an immigration quota. US put strong limits on Asian immigration, yet they had unlimited immigration from Europe, US was being deemed racist for their policy. Japan now feels stuck after the quota
What was the Japanese response to the US immigration quota?
they need to go to war.
What was the Manchuria Invasion?
Attack into Manchuria in China by Japan.
Why does the Manchuria Invasion make sense for Japan to do?
-It could be lots more land to expand territorial wise.
-Japan also owns Korea, and it is next to it so they can connect those areas
-Manchuria also has the natural resources and close to Japan
-logical place to expand Japan for population area.
-China at this point is weak, so Japan can exploit them.
What was the Greater East Asia Co-Propsperity Sphere?
Japan lies to population about it not being imperial, but rather being liberators and say they are freeing Chinese from European control.
-They called it this because to say they would do well together.
When was the Greater East Asia Co-Propsperity Sphere?
Why did Japan decide to lie about being imperial?
To free Asians from other Asian countries so they don’t get run by Europe, including Burma, Thailand, French-Indo-China, Philippines, China.
What was the whole point of them really lying about being imperial?
They want the one form of imperialism to replace it with another form of it.
What was the US reaction to the Greater East Asia Co-Propsperity Sphere?
The US reacts to this as we don't like them pushing into China tell them to stop.
What was used to stop the lying by Japan?
What did ABCD Encirclement stand for?
America, Britain, China, Dutch Encirclement.
What did the ABCD countries carry out against Japan?
An embargo in 1936
What is an embargo?
A trade restriction for another country.
What did this embargo mean for Japan?
US was major exporter of oil, Japan used our oil
-This means Japan got none of the US’s resources.
What was the main idea of this embargo?
to slow them down as they were on the rise gaining land.
-This actually pushes Japan further into going for Indonesia and southern Asia because they were cut off by the US.
What was Japan essentially forced to do after the embargo?
They are pushing into Mainland China and in 1937 US gives $50M in military aid to the Chinese.
What does Japan think of the US after the embargo?
They are the US's enemy.
What is the Tripartite Pact?
Japan is now siding with Germany and Italy in the axis powers.
What do the three nations of the Tripartite Pact know?
They know the only force that could stop them is the US
-They know US will be involved at some point, whether they like it or not.
What is their plan for conquering the US?
The process is they need to spread the US out, so they have enemies on both sides, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Atlantic
After the Tripartite Pact, what did WWII just become really about?
What is going on in China while US is being discussed?
China is in a Civil war, really out of it now.
What was the Chinese Civil war about?
It was between the Republics and Communists, and they used up all of the US’s war goods to fight each other, so they were absolutely picked apart by the Japanese in the other war. It was Chiang Kai-Shek vs. Mao Tsetung
When was Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
What was Pearl Harbor?
The final step of getting US into the war.