Flashcards in The Anti-Vietnam War Movement Deck (116):
What were the main causes for the anti-war movement?
-war lacked a clear purpose
-lack of War Fever
-protestors are College students
-increasing cost of war
Why was war lacking a clear purpose a reason for the anti-war movement?
We are in Vietnam to supposedly to stop Communism, but many people do not know why it is bad.
How did the American people feel that Vietnam was lacking a clear purpose and that Communism is not showing why it is bad?
Don’t they have freedom, why are we stopping them from making their choice, we have not stopped all Communism, it exists in many places.
What was the rumor that the Domino Theory could expand to?
It could reach through the Pacific and all the way to California.
Did the American people believe in this California rumor with the Domino Theory why or why not?
They do not think so and would not really care if it did.
What is usually there for the American people to think of with every war?
There is always something to remember and take something back as an impact.
What would be the major incident to remember from the Vietnam War, but was it really memorable?
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, but it was questionable if it actually happened and people did not really care much about it because it did not happen on American soil.
What was the other reason why lack of war fever caused protests?
It was not officially a declared war.
How would an official Declaration of War cause more war fever in America?
If alliances kick in, what happens in Europe or the USSR, so nobody cares much.
How did an unofficial Declaration of War cause more war protests based on fighting and the American people caring?
Why would you lay down your life for something that nobody cares about, how do you get war fever without popular support?
What was the average soldier age in Vietnam?
How was the protestors being college students cause anti-war movements?
Students want to be educated and not fight, some of their friends are being taken to the war and getting killed.
How does the education level of college students relate to anti-war protests?
It is more challenging, more application to real world, think on much deeper level and be tomorrow’s leaders, explore the whys and hows, challenge authority.
What is the college symbol of the military that caused protests?
the ROTC campus building
How does college and government relate to anti-war movements?
College represents government, the thing oppressing college students who want to be independent.
How did the Generation Gap relate to anti-war movements?
Baby Boomers are teenagers, they have different values than Congressmen.
What were the average ages of soldiers in WWII, Vietnam, and Congress during Vietnam?
How were there value differences between the 19 year old soldiers and 53 year old government officials?
They have differences in what they think they should lay down their lives for, those who make decisions vs. whose lives are affected by those decisions are a big factor.
How did the 60s Social Movements relate to the anti-war movement?
Like the leaders for the social movements did, you can bring change with civil disobedience.
How was civil disobedience related to protesting the war?
It has worked before in social movements, it is a tactic to help change the system and it can help to end the war and brings a mindset for change.
How was Increasing War Cost a cause for the anti-war movement with respect to money?
With Johnson's social programs, he spent lots of money on our economic budget and when the war dragged on, this caused an inflation trend. Also, many war supplies costed money as well.
What are the costs of a typical war?
What happened during the inflation trend that caused anti-war movements?
It hurts the poor and marginalized and also takes out the capital money that takes away economic growth.
How was Increasing Cost of War a cause for the anti-war movement with respect to deaths?
Many are dying and coming home in body bags and this affected people so much back in America.
What did SDS stand for?
Students for a Democratic Society
Who founded SDS?
Who was Tom Hayden?
a civil rights activist and college student
What document officially setup SDS?
Port Huron Statement
What was the main movement by the SDS?
The New Left Movement
What was the New Left Movement?
attacks the government, big businesses, the wealth gap hurts America, money is going to rich, it should be economically more fair among Americans.
What did the New Left Movement attack?
The 1950s and their "bureaucratic men" for the inability to solve problems with poverty, racism, and war.
What was the bureaucratic men the SDS attacked?
They controlled businesses and people that benefitted economically and socially from racism, poverty, and war.
When was the Port Huron Statement?
What were the circumstances when the Port Huron Statement was written?
Before Vietnam War, writes about what America should be and our vision, before JFK assassination and vision of Camelot and what it can do.
What was Tom Hayden doing when he wrote the Port Huron Statement?
Student at Wisconsin
What did the Port Huron Statement voice a concern for?
Why was SDS so concerned about revolution, overpopulation, and war?
They felt the majority of the American people ignored those global problems and these issues will be our problems if we do not solve them soon enough.
Why did Hayden want students to be involved with SDS?
They must seek to understand the world at large, take direct action and be involved in making of history, instead of hearing about the past.
What current conditions did Hayden feel should break middle class college students out of their complacency for America?
-Cuban Missile Crisis/Cold War
-humans can end all life
How was human degradation a reason Hayden wanted students to take action in SDS?
We are dealing with mass racism struggles in the South and human life is in danger of being destroyed with the atomic bomb.
How was humans can end all life a reason Hayden wanted students to take action in SDS?
If they do not do something now, WW3 could break out, turn nuclear, and cause a threat to all human life, as humans have made weapons to end all life.
How were the Freedom Rides a reason Hayden wanted students to take action in SDS?
Jim Zwerg is on those rides, from Wisconsin, Hayden is at Wisconsin, relates to Civil Disobedience, here is the tool of how you can change the world.
What style of speech is used in the Port Huron Statement to describe our own identity crises?
What is the nuclear energy paradox?
With nuclear energy, whole cities can easily be powered, yet dominant nations seem to unleash destruction greater than that incurred in all wars of human history.
What is the loving world paradox?
Do we like the world or do we light it up?
What is the clean energy paradox?
Do we provide clean energy to the world and protect natural resources?
What was the urgency for America paradox?
Nothing has happened yet, but we are on the clock, Kennedy has called us to help ourselves and see what Camelot vision could be for America.
What was the financial class system paradox?
Wealth is controlled by top 1%, we need to redistribute the sharing of wealth to bring up standard of living for poor.
What was the technology advancement paradox?
Technology has been advancing in order to solve problems, but yet many tasks are being done the way they have always been done, we should innovate.
What was the social injustice paradox?
Civil Rights are holding us back from a great American vision.
What was the leader and society paradox?
We need a revolutionary leader, but America is still in a stalemate in society and the rest of the world.
What was the stated goal of SDS?
A social movement called “loci of power”
What did loci of power mean?
location of power in society
Why did SDS want a loci of power?
We need to redistribute where power is held in our society.
Why did SDS want to redistribute the loci of power in America?
Power is held in upper class, government positions and leaderships, let it be held by normal people because we are a democracy for the people.
What did the Port Huron Statement and SDS say about if nobody wanted to achieve their loci of power goal?
Complaining is not effective, people need to be a force of change to do something about it.
What were the main causes of the Counterculture?
-Baby boomers are teenagers and many were in college
-Social Movements of the 60s
-Living on the eve of destruction
-new pop cultures
What were the new pop cultures present in of the counterculture?
Who wrote the Declaration of Evolution?
Who was Timothy Leary?
A Harvard professor who had a crazy personality in which he experimented with drugs in his classes.
What was the Declaration of Evolution?
A document stating the beliefs of the counterculture and how they oppose the traditional beliefs of America.
What historic document does Leary mimic in the Declaration of Evolution?
Declaration of Independence
Why did Leary mimic the Declaration of Independence?
This was the document that brought our first American social change by becoming free. Now, Leary wants to rebel the typical America and begin a new trend.
Does Leary mention the basic human rights, even with his beliefs for the culture movement?
Yes. He relates basic human rights and how the American people should join this movement and be allowed to do this.
What is a nickname for a counterculture person?
What were the race and social classes of these hippies?
White from middle class families
What were the values of a counterculture hippie?
-rejected conventional norms and middle class values
-wanted to drop out of society
-were not be politically active
What was the debatable question about the number of people being hippies and how they sought to be non-conformists?
Does it mean they are conforming?
What was the philosophy of the counterculture?
-make love not war
-feelings over reason
-create peaceful loving communities
How was make love not war a part of the counterculture's philosophy?
Change society's priorities and focus on peace not violence.
How was feelings over reason a part of the counterculture's philosophy?
Do what feels good for yourself, no excuses or reasons, be yourself.
How was creating peaceful communities a part of the counterculture's philosophy?
-Live the way of new social standards
-Make what you need, share what you have.
What was the "New Look" status quo for the counterculture?
How did the counterculture want people to dress natural?
dress with free-flowing, natural fabrics, comfortable, colorful, blue jeans, or ethnic colors
How did the counterculture want people to look natural?
have long hair, beards, no makeup, be yourself
How did the counterculture want people to eat natural?
Eat healthy foods, vegetarian diets and all-organic diets were popular.
When was the Woodstock Music Festival?
What was the Woodstock Music Festival?
A three day music festival where many pop artists performed, the theme was peace and many hippies attended and spread their culture
What kind of art came in style with the counterculture?
What were the characteristics of Pop Art?
-Content taken from mass media and products of the consumer society
-Mass production and multiplied
-For the common viewer
Who were the top Pop Artists of the movement?
What were the radicals of the counterculture?
What also were the Moonies called?
Who did the Moonies follow?
Rev. Sun Myung Moon
What was the goal of the Moonies?
to populate the world with sinless people
What was the moonies' main principle?
The Divine Principle
What were the points of the Divine Principle?
- God is the Creator and source of truth, beauty, and goodness
-The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God
What were the Hare Krishna?
A Hindu counterculture radical group
What did Moonies hold in order to free people and reject sins?
Who did the Hare Krishna follow?
Swami Bhaktiuedante Prabhupada
Who was the Hare Krishna dedicated to?
The Hindu god Vishnu
What were the goals and values of the Hare Krishna?
-Promote personal peace & happiness
-Refrain from sex, drugs & eating meat
Who was Swami?
The latest in line of Indian mystics.
What percent of the population followed the counterculture?
How many people were opposed to the counterculture?
Why did so many people oppose the counterculture?
They despised drugs, sex, and nudity.
Even though the counterculture had a small portion of supporters from the population, did they still receive attention?
Who must enlist in the military draft?
All 18 year old males
How long has the military draft been around?
Hundreds of years, since the Civil War
What was the first part of the drafting process?
You filled the application and questionnaire, and got a draft status
Why do some people dislike military drafts?
You may not want to go fight, but they have to fight if they are drafted.
What are the possible military draft statuses?
What is the 1A draft status?
You are totally eligible at any point, number went into main lottery, if number was picked, you had to go to Vietnam.
What is the 2S draft status?
You were immune from 1A because you are student in HS or college.
What happens if you are a 2S status and you flunk out of school or do not attend college?
You become 1A in the big lottery.
What is the 3A draft status?
Your number was differed because you had dependents (children)
What is the 4A draft status?
You were exempt from being drafted because you already had completed military service
What is the 4F draft status?
You were exempt from service because you had a physical/ mental disorder.
What did blacks think the Vietnam draft was?
How, numbers wise was the Vietnam draft discriminatory?
They were 11% of Total Population, but 16% of the Draftees.
How, social wise was the Vietnam draft discriminatory?
Whites had the money to go to college and get the 2S exempt status, whereas blacks could not afford much for college so they were mostly 1A status.
How did the Vietnam draft relate to rich vs. poor?
Poor blacks' economic situation hurt them, rich are protected, but poor are not because they have less money and cannot afford to go to college.
What was the other way rich people could avoid being drafted to Vietnam?
If their dad is a doctor, he can diagnose the son with a disorder so he is a 4F and cannot go into Vietnam.
What were some of the actions taking place to protest the Vietnam draft?
-burning draft cards
-refusing to register, called dodging the draft
-fleeing to Canada
How was fleeing to Canada an issue with the draft protests?
Some people were arrested in Canada with a warrant by Americans and could possibly not be allowed in the US again.