Flashcards in Germany Before WWII Deck (80):
How was Hitler's upbringing?
-Hated his father
-Life goal was not to rule world, to be an artist
-Closer to his mother
How did Hitler's career go in WWI?
-Even though Germany and Austria are allies, he likes Germany better so he enlists in german army
-Nothing special of a soldier
-Works mostly as a messenger
-End of war, he is hurt in gas attack
What did Hitler do after WWI that possibly caused his future?
-In hospital when armistice gets signed, part of his anger about Versailles.
-Never used chemical weapons in war, saw it as dishonorable because he got hurt that way.
When and where did Hitler start campaigning?
In 1923 at Beer Hall Putsch
What was Hitler's goal of campaigning?
to jump in front and get followed
What was the problem with his campaigning?
He gets arrested with other Nazis, in prison 5 years.
Why could Germany not go back to war at the time of the 1920s?
they are still wrecked from WWI's reparations.
How long is Hitler really in jail for and what response did he get after escaping?
Only serves 9 months of the 5 years, and after he got out he was admired for taking the risk of rebelling, people liked him for that.
What was the book he wrote later after Hitler got out of prison?
When did the Nazis become largest party in Reichstag?
When the Nazis are largest party, what happens to Hitler?
Hitler becomes chancellor
Who were the two big rising political parties in the 1920s and the 1930s?
Nazis and Communists
Why did the Nazis and Communists lose people just before the Great Depression, but gained again after it started?
Things were looking better in Germany, so they didn't need a radical party in charge, but once things got bad again with the depression, the radicals were more relevant again.
Why were people a bit worried once Hitler became chancellor?
He discomforted the citizens by exterminating Jews and other people, and wanting to go back to war.
What is the Reichstag?
German parliament building
What did the Nazis do to the Reichstag?
Nazis set the building on fire
Who is Marinus van der Lubbe?
The person who was scapegoated by the Nazis for burning the Reichstag. He is a young communist who is a foreigner who suffered from the propaganda by the Nazis hating the Communists. He gets executed for the blame
Why did Hitler want to burn the Reichstag?
Hitler wants to start a crisis and act like the hero for doing this. He wants all the attention so he can be the hero for stuff he did. Hitler wants 100% attention of everything
Why was Hitler being politically sneaky about the Reichstag fire?
Hitler is playing out the Constitution in his favor; he gets in charge to control crises because he is chancellor.
What is the Enabling Act?
Enables Chancellor to make law without going to the Reichstag or the President.
What happens to the President of Germany and what happens to Hitler after this occurs?
Hindenburg, the President dies in 1934 of natural causes, so Hitler merges the chancellor with the President and becomes the Fuhrer.
Who was President of Germany when Hitler became chancellor?
What does being the Fuhrer mean for Hitler?
He has total power of everything and knows he has to live up to the expectations.
What were some of the media restrictions made by Hitler from his Nazi campaign?
burning books that contained information that he didn't want people to know. Different points of view, Jewish authors, certain radio stations were banned. Hitler wanted control of all media and what people could know.
What was Hitler Youth?
A program for young boys and girls to get physically in shape so they can be recruited for war eventually. Girls had a female version for Hitler Youth and were recruited as well.
When did Berlin host the Olympics?
What were the Olympics nicknamed?
What did Hitler use the Olympics as an opportunity to do?
to unveil a new Germany and to spread his Nazi propaganda
What was the recognition he earned later that year?
Time Magazine Man of the Year
Who was the American runner who won 4 gold medals?
Why was Hitler angry about the American runner?
He spoiled the Germans' success
How did Hitler start deeming Jews as bad people?
Hitler has scapegoated the Jewish community as they are not real Germans, the reason they lost WWI, making Germans poor, reason why Germany was run down for a while.
How did Hitler begin targeting Jews?
He made them wear the star of David to identify themselves
How did Hitler put economic pressure on Jewish-owned businesses?
Stores with Jewish owners were marked with stars.
How did the early part of the Holocaust come to a head?
the events of Kristallnacht
What does Kristallnacht mean?
Night of broken glass
What was the instigation of Kristallnacht?
A German diplomat in Paris was killed by a Parisian Jew. The Nazis used it as a green light to avenge the murder by taking it out on the Jewish community.
What did the Nazis do to Jews on Kristallnacht?
The broke shops, stores. They targeted Jews on the streets, Synagogues were burned, it turned into uncontrolled violence.
What was Hitler's main goal of the Nazi aggression?
To get his land and real people back
Where did Hitler start trying to acquire land?
Saarland in 1935
What is Saarland?
A German area near the French border that was taken away in WWI and is controlled by the League of Nations.
Why was Hitler confident he could make the move of acquiring Saarland?
Hitler wants to cross the line against Versailles, but he does it because the League of Nations have no military and was pretty weak, so they couldn't put up a fight for it. Also, the people of Saarland can't resist because they are mostly German and would like to go back.
After Hitler successfully acquires Saarland, what does he think?
Nobody reacts poorly to this, she thinks of taking the next step.
Where does Hitler try to acquire second?
What is Rhineland?
Always been Germany on the Belgian-French border
What happened to Rhineland after Versailles?
Germany was unable to put troops there.
How did Hitler conquer Rhineland?
He moved horses there.
How did people react to Rhineland and how did Hitler respond to peoples' reactions?
People did not react because it was still German territory. Because people didn't react even though he violated Versailles, Hitler felt he could keep going.
What was Spain going through when Hitler was making the land moves?
A Civil War
What did Hitler do to Interact with the Spanish Civil War?
Germany, along with Italy supports the Fascists in the war. He wants to form a pact with the Fascists.
What was the Spanish Civil War between?
The Fascists vs the Monarchy
Who was the leader of the Spanish Fascists?
Who are the allies in the Spanish Civil War to the monarchs?
Britain, France, Soviets, just a few US members
What happens when Hitler tries to form a pact with Franco?
He cannot reach an agreement.
What are the effects of Hitler and Franco being unable to reach the agreement Hitler hoped for?
Hitler still supports Franco, but Hitler wants a pre-war "scrimmage" with Spain before he pulls the trigger on WWII. He wants a good sense of the war.
Who wins the Spanish Civil War and what does this mean for the winner?
Franco ends up winning and will control Spain until the 1970s. Spain would still be neutral in WWII.
What did the Nazis do after the Spanish Civil war to start getting ready?
They wiped out town of Guernica and Germans practiced a bomb there.
What is the Anschluss?
It was between Germany and Austria. Hitler was born in Austria, so he can say he is a true German by him taking in Austria with Germany so he can cover up killing the untrue Germans, which is what he really was himself.
How do the Austrians respond to the Anschluss?
They say that Austria is never German, Austrian chancellor resists and Nazis kill him.
What was another reason besides Hitler's excuse for the Anschluss?
They needed some commanders.
How did the world respond to the Anschluss?
They are getting nervous about Hitler
In 1939, what piece of land did Hitler try to acquire?
What was Sudetenland?
A part of land the Germans had, but in Versailles, Germany lost this to Czechoslovakia.
How did the world react to Sudetenland?
It brought a big reaction
What was the Munich Conference?
A meeting where people talk and worry about the acts of Germany and what could lead in the future.
Who besides Hitler is at the Munich conference?
Mussolini, Neville Chamberlain of England, and French President, Edward Dalader.
What are the other people talking to Hitler about in the Munich conference?
They are meeting and challenging his plan.
What is Hitler's answer to being challenged at the Munich conference?
Hitler lies about it and says he will reunite German people together and he promises completely as he signs a document for approval not to start anything.
After Hitler signs his approval at the Munich Conference, what does Neville Chamberlain do when he gets home?
He waves the signed document around and says "this will bring peace in our day."
What is appeasement?
Something you give to someone to keep peace with them.
What do other countries think about Hitler after his appeasement at Munich Conference?
He maybe/maybe not will go to war.
What is the Non-Aggression Pact?
An agreement between USSR and Germany. Not an alliance, just a pact. This will allow Hitler to control England and France better.
What does Hitler know after he lies at the Munich Conference?
He knows France and England can't be fooled, so if he invades another country, they will declare war because he will have broken his promise.
Because of England and France being on edge if he invades, where does Hitler think there may be less danger of going to?
What is the one more thing Hitler need before going to war, as he knows war will start once he invades?
Needs an ally, which is Italy and is called the Pact of Steel. This is an offensive alliance as Hitler nearly forces Italy to come with them.
What does Mussolini think about the forced alliance?
He is hesitant and makes promises about Austria.
Why is Mussolini not completely up for going to war with Germany?
There are some worries that Italy could be invaded, but Hitler is so forceful that he basically has to do it anyway.
After Italy joins Germany, what does Hitler do?
What date did Hitler invade Poland?
September 1, 1939