Flashcards in Reagan Quiz Deck (376):
When and where was Reagan born?
1911 in Tampico, IL
What is one word to describe his upbringing?
Where did Reagan first move to? At what age?
At age 9 he moved to Dixon, IL
What was Reagan's father like?
he was alcoholic, traveling shoe salesman
How did Reagan feel about his childhood?
Reagan feels isolated from others because he moved around a lot, dad had troubles moved jobs a lot, he never settled anywhere. He was respected for this, but had no close friends.
What did he call his childhood?
What was Reagan's mother like?
a fundamental Christian, from the Church of Disciples of Christ
How does his mother affect Reagan's personality?
She impacts how Reagan views the world, clear good and evil in his views of the world’s values, good fights evil, obliged to do that.
What kind of schools did Reagan attend?
public high school
What was his most formative experience?
was serving 6 summers as a lifeguard at Rock River in Illinois.
What did he do as the lifeguard?
He saved 77 people from drowning
What did he do as President relating to the lifeguards?
He hung lifeguard picture in his office.
Why did Reagan hang the lifeguard picture in his office?
It reminded him that there was 77 people grateful for him, somewhere out there, people appreciate what he did even if he made some people mad.
Where did Reagan go to college?
What did Reagan do in college?
Majors in sociology and economics, not a great student, very socially active, 3 year letterer on football team, part of theater club there as well.
What did Reagan focus on in college?
Social aspects on campus over academic smarts
When did Reagan graduate? What was happening as he graduated?
In 1932, Roosevelt is elected, we are bottoming out of great depression
After graduating, what did Reagan do?
Reagan finds a job as radio broadcaster, he does Cubs baseball games
How did Reagan's broadcasting help him for the future?
It develops his ability to reach people, as Reagan had to take facts of the game and create an image and story of the game for the listeners. He communicated so well, he was camera-friendly.
What were his nicknames?
-The Great Communicator
What career did Reagan pursue next?
Acting in Hollywood
When did Reagan start acting?
Describe Reagan the actor.
-helped his communication skills even more
-not the greatest
-in almost all movies he is the hero
-fits how he sees himself in his mom's values
What was Reagan's most popular film?
Who was Knute Rockne?
Notre Dame football coach
What happens in the movie?
George Gipp, team captain is ill and dying, teammates come to see him before the big game and Gipp asks them to win for him
Who did Reagan play in the movie? What nickname did he get for it?
He played Gipp and got the nickname "the gipper"
Who was Reagan's first wife? When did they marry?
actress Jane Wyman in the 1930s
Describe his first Marriage.
Hollywood image of perfect family, both very attractive, a Hollywood couple. He had two kids, another child who died at birth.
Shortly after marrying Wyman, what did he do?
He served in WWII Army
What was Reagan's role in WWII?
His benefit is using his communication skills in another way, he does training films for soldiers, tactics on how to fly a plane and war bond drives as actor propaganda
After WWII, what does Reagan do next?
Goes back to acting
What event alters his political views?
The Red scare and McCarthyism
What does he do during the red scare that alters his political views?
When Hollywood 10 are called, he will testify as friendly witness saying there are spies and Communists in Hollywood
Why is what he did with the red scare unusual?
He is in a labor union, when there is a strike during the Hollywood 10, he crosses the picket line and as head of the union, he switches from Democrat to Republican.
How did him leading the union lead to his political switch?
There was lots of violence in the labor strike, Reagan did not support that
What happens to his first marriage?
It ends in a divorce.
Why did Reagan divorce Wyman?
Wyman disliked his new political opinions and values and turning politically away from her..
After his divorce, what happens to his acting career?
It winds down
Why was his acting career struggling?
His strike views and the divorce and he stars in Bonzo series and animals get more money over him in the movies
What thing essentially saves his career?
GE Theater program
When did he participate in GE Theater?
What was GE Theater?
GE sponsored a movie every Sunday night
What did Reagan do during his stint with GE Theater?
He did the intro to the film speech
How did his stint with GE help him get out there?
TV is big with entertainment in the family, this brought him into everyone’s livingroom every Sunday night, trusted figure bringing good TV for the family, people associated Reagan with those times of the 50s
What did Reagan do during his stint with GE Theater?
He re-marries Nancy Davis
Who was Nancy Davis?
An actress who became Reagan's protector
How was Nancy a protector of Reagan?
She was very protective, would be unhappy if anyone said anything poorly about him.
How many kids did Ronald and Nancy have?
How did his stint with GE help his political views?
He goes to all the GE plants, it shapes his economic policy
What does he learn about his policy at GE?
He is hearing that government’s the problem at these places, too many regulations, limits on ability to make profits, as he heard workers say that taxes are too high, and government is messing things up, and develops conservative view.
When did Reagan first go into politics?
What was his first political position?
Governor of California
When was he the California governor?
Why was being the California governor hard at that time?
Because of Vietnam and counterculture, San Francisco was a big area for protests, as well as at Cal, and the race riots in Watts and San Diego.
What did Reagan have to do with the Cal Vietnam protest?
His oldest daughter was a student at Cal when Reagan sent in National Guard to stop an anti-war protest.
What else did Reagan do as governor?
-wanted to rebuild the California economy
-gives nominating speech for Goldwater in 1964
When did Reagan first run for President? Who did he run against?
1976 vs. Ford
How did Reagan fare in the 1976 election? What did he do afterwards? How did this election affect him?
He loses, but this puts him out nationally and sets him up to win later on, he then puts together “the conservative coalition.”
What is the conservative coalition?
It is the perfect system for republican if they want to win votes. Republicans are nearly unstoppable if this system works.
What are the four parts to the conservative coalition?
-Nixon's Silent Majority
-The Religious Right
What is Nixon's Silent Majority?
White, middle class Americans, they have a sense of patriotism and are not protestors
Who are the business leaders?
The top 1% that Democrats are trying to tax on, elite, wealthy business leadership of America.
Who are the religious right?
Fundamental Christians in America, the “700 club people” they are anti-abortion, anti-gay marriage, based on religious values first
Who are the "Hawks"?
Pro-military people, people who believe American starts in military strength, fight for America first and we run on military.
Who did Reagan beat in the election of 1980?
Why was it a surprise that Reagan beat Carter in 1980?
It is very rare that an incumbent President loses, Carter is sitting President, and Reagan beats him badly
How much does Reagan win in 1980?
He wins all states except Georgia, Minnesota, WV, Maryland, and DC
Who did Reagan run against for re-election? When?
Walter Mondale in 1984
Who was Walter Mondale?
From Minnesota, Carter's VP
How much does Reagan win in 1984?
All but Minnesota, Mondale's home state
Does Reagan have popular mandate? How?
Yes, as well as the backing of the nation and an electoral vote landslide
What was Reagan's management style?
Chairman of the Board philosophy
How old was Reagan when elected?
69, the oldest ever President elected
What was the concern as he got older?
He had small Alzheimer's disease in his second term in which he could lose awareness.
What was Reagan's Chairman of the Board philosophy?
He sets the big picture and asks his people to get it done, does not matter how it is done, just make it happen, it is more detached from day to day decision making
What is the name for his closest advisors?
Who are the people who make up the Troika? Why were they special to Reagan?
-James Baker, Chief of Staff
-Ed Meese, Attorney General
-Michael Deaver, Assistant Chief of Staff
-They capably served Reagan and worked closest to him in decision making.
What was Deaver's responsibility in addition to helping make decisions?
He kept tabs on Nancy
Why did Deaver need to keep tabs on Nancy?
Reagan loved her and valued her opinion, Nancy would come in and give ideas, and Reagan would agree with her and people thought she was nuts she was valued a bit too highly.
How did Deaver keep tabs on Nancy?
He had to divert Nancy from going into the meetings.
When was the Assassination Attempt of Reagan?
March 30, 1981
Describe the background before the assassination attempt.
Several weeks after inauguration, he is giving a speech at Washington Hilton, as he leaves, he has a 20-30 foot walk to the limo.
What is Reagan doing as he is nearly shot? Why was he doing this?
Reagan liked the popularity of being President, he goes out and meets people on his way to the limo.
How does the assassin fire at Reagan?
A quick pop pop pop of 6 shots being fired at Reagan
How did Reagan's assassination attempt differ from Kennedy's?
The security is much greater to protect Reagan.
Who is on hand there to protect Reagan?
-Agent Jerry Parr
-Press Secretary Jim Brady
What happens to Parr at the assassination attempt?
He takes a bullet to the abdomen, and he takes Reagan and shoves him in the limo
What happens to Brady at the assassination attempt?
He takes a bullet in the head, gives him permanent head damage
After Brady's injury, what is passed?
The Brady Bill
What did the Brady Bill do?
It imposed five day waiting period on guns after purchase.
What actually happened to one of the bullets?
The bullet goes off limo, hits Reagan’s armpit, one inch from his heart, he did not realize he was shot.
After being shoved into the limo, what happens to Reagan?
They rush him to hospital, he walks in before he collapses, surgery saved his life, he is cracking jokes after surgery.
Who is not so amused during the whole hospital process?
What joke does Reagan tell the doctor before surgery? How did the doctor respond?
I hope you are all Republicans. The doctor says Today we are all Republicans.
Who was the assassin?
John Hinckley Jr.
What was his goal by trying to kill Reagan?
His goal was to impress Jodie Foster
Why did he want to impress Jodie Foster?
He saw the movie Taxi Driver where Robert DeNiro and Jodie Foster get in love and thinks he proves his love for her by killing the President
What happened to Reagan after the attempt for the future?
It closes him off from Hollywood role, he never worked the fence line again, never worked across a tarmac. It closed him off from the public part of the Presidency.
Who decided Reagan should not go in public much anymore during his Presidency?
What were the nicknames of Reagan's economic plan?
-Supply Side Economics
What was Reaganomics' theory opposite of?
The New Deal
What is the typical answer during a recession?
To increase spending, take us out of the depression spiral, put in money, more jobs, work our way out of the depression
What side of economics did Reagan focus on?
the supply side
What theory was the center of Reaganomics?
The trickle down theory
How did Reagan's economic plan carry out?
He gives the wealth a tax break, and counts on them to re-invest money. When they re-invest, it creates more capital in their business, increases supply, prices go down, inflation is lowered.
What was the other half with Reagan's plan?
It increases jobs, increases demand, brings down recession.
What were the goals of Reaganomics?
-re-invest money from tax breaks
-deficit is erased
-inflation goes down
What kind of tax break did the wealthy get?
What was the idea behind Reagan's economic plan?
They will take money from tax breaks, re-invest it, create jobs, generate demand, and money will trickle down and cause investment and deficit is erased more.
What film related to Reaganomics? What line of the movie shows this?
Wall Street, the line "greed is good."
How did the movie line relate to Reaganomics?
Reagan wants better economics and wants to take a tax break and turn it into big money.
What must be depended on the people getting the tax breaks?
They must keep re-investing
What was the early problem with Reaganomics?
Some people are not investing money, so they pocket the money, if money stops here and does not trickle, only the rich benefit
What were the parts of the Reagan economic plan?
-Tax Cuts and Reform
-Balance the Federal Budget
-Trickle down theory
-Fed controls spending
-Reduction of entitlements
What were the tax cuts in Reagan's first years?
5% (1981), 10% (1982), 10% (1983)
How must you balance a budget?
You must decrease spending and increase income.
What was the federal deficit in 1980?
Does Reagan find the easy way to balance the budget?
No, because he spends less, but he lowers taxes, so government does not get direct money.
What happens if Reagan reduced the tax rate?
If he reduces tax rate, puts more people to work, sell more at a lower profit margin, if you lower things, more people buy it and generate more profit.
What theory did Reagan use to acquire money without getting people to pay taxes?
The trickle down theory
What was the trickle down theory?
Reduce the taxes for wealthy to create more money for investments and business, they can hire more workers by re-investing, build more, increase supply so prices go down, cost goes down, but creating more jobs, it fixes unemployment rate and creates demand for people to spend money.
What was the other name for New Federalism?
Shifting to Unfunded Mandates
If the money trickles right, what happens?
Jobs can be created, you can collect a lower tax rate for more people, can earn more money back.
What is the other part of the economic equation of balancing the budget?
How did Reagan try to cut spending more efficiently?
He shifted federal mandate programs from federally funded to non-federally funded mandates in the states.
What programs fall into federal mandate programs?
What does it mean for a program to be federally mandated?
It is required to be funded by the government
What is the benefit of shifting the federal mandate programs?
Less federal spending and work gets done to erase the deficit
What is the problem with federal mandate shifting?
States have more funding to worry about with millions of dollars.
Did the shifting help the federal government balance their budget?
Yes, but it put a huge burden on the states
What is the "fed"?
Federal reserve bank
How did Reagan have the fed control spending?
He raised interest rates and controls spending, as he is a conservative
What does it mean to be entitled to something?
Taking ownership of it, earning it.
What government programs are entitlement programs?
What is the idea behind the entitlement programs?
You pay taxes for these, but when you need the help of these programs, it is there for you.
What did Reagan do to the unemployment comp?
He reduced it from 36 weeks support to 29 weeks.
What was good about Reagan cutting Unemployment Comp by 7 weeks?
Saves government money, helps to balance the budget
What is the problem with Reagan cutting the Unemployment Comp by 7 weeks?
People are mad because they are entitled to it and pay taxes for it and now get limits on it.
Does Reagan get away with cutting unemployment comp though? How?
Yes, his communication skills help people vote for him as he was very personable.
What else did Reagan reduce that was an entitlement program?
Why did Reagan want to deregulate the government?
The government is in the way, too many agencies, OSHA, EPA, FAA, FCC, etc.
What does Reagan to do deregulate the government?
He downsizes these programs
What is the benefit of Reagan deregulating the government?
It saves money for government as Reagan feels the businesses can do this themselves.
What is the issue with deregulating the government?
It is a huge risk for the people that there are less precautions taken and less preparation and security.
What was the national debt in 1980?
What was the deficit in 1986?
What was the debt by 1989?
Did balancing the budget work?
What was the other problem in addition to the debt rising?
Homelessness was an all time high and unemployment rates were high.
What did Reagan think of the whole economic process?
It may hurt people now, but long term future wise, it will help.
What has the Cold War policy been for the last 40 years?
Containment in some kind of way, not eliminating Communism, hold the line against expansion
How does Reagan go for the Soviets?
He goes for the win and to eliminate it
Why is it surprising that Reagan goes for the win against the Soviets?
His moral background of good vs. bad and trying to do morally wrong against them.
What kind of plan is his for the Soviets?
What was Reagan's strategy for the plan?
To drive the Soviets into an arm’s race, if our economy can build weapons the likes of which the world has never seen, he spends a ton of money on weapons and challenge the Soviets to match us weapon for weapon
Why is his challenge strategy good?
Our economy can provide for our people, but if the Soviets spend lots of money on weapons, their command system can not provide for their people as well.
What could happen if Soviet people are not helped by the government?
They can become hungry and poor, break them financially, people are angry, they may begin a rebellion against the Soviet government to start a fight.
How do you start a fight?
Insult them, ask them if they want to fight, get aggressive and strong before it gets physical.
Who met with Reagan to discuss his foreign policy?
Why did Nixon discuss foreign policy with Reagan?
He felt it was impractical and felt detente was better
How did Reagan feel about Nixon coming in?
He respected him, but felt picking a fight with the Soviets would work better.
What skills did Reagan use to show America his plan would work?
What did Reagan label the Soviets as?
An evil empire
How did the evil empire statement relate to Reagan?
Sums up the Cold War and what it means to him.
What did Reagan mean by evil in his evil empire statement?
Does good (US) tolerate evil (USSR), good cannot coexist with evil, his mother’s values with good vs. evil, now Reagan has called them out.
What did Reagan mean by empire in his evil empire statement?
He means they conquer and are out to control others.
How did Reagan pick his fight with the Soviets?
-challenged the arms race with the Soviets
-called them nasty names
-capsulized the evil empire
What is the difficult part of his Soviet strategy?
Spending the money for the weapons.
How much does Reagan spend in military spending? What kind of weapons did he spend it on?
$1.64 T in new technological weapons.
What weapons are spent with Reagan's money that are advanced?
-Trident Nuclear Submarine
-B-I Stealth Planes
What kind of ICBMs did Reagan buy and make?
-the MX Missile
What is Reagan's military strategy opposite of?
SALT and reducing weapons, he creates rather than limits.
How much did a B-I plane cost?
$1B per plane
Why were B-I Stealths so effective?
It is difficult on radar to find because of the technology to find, it is a long range bomber.
Do the new weapons really challenge the Soviets?
What is the tactic that does challenge the Soviets?
What did SDI stand for?
Strategic Defense Initiative
Was SDI real?
No, just a theory
What was the SDI theory?
To use satellites and lasers to shoot down ICBMs from the Soviets, put a big laser shield on the US
What happens when a ICBM is fired?
It is not active until it hits the ground, it goes into upper atmosphere and goes all the way down.
What would happen if satellites were there protecting the US from the ICBMs?
Satellites are up here so lasers hit the apparatus before hitting the US.
How did the Soviets feel about the SDI theory?
This scared the Soviets
Why did SDI scare the Soviets?
-Takes away MAAG and SALT
-we get the Soviets and they cannot get us
-they believe this fake theory
What did people call the SDI theory?
How did Reagan talk about the SDI theory?
He talked like it was a real thing, he made science fiction real.
When did the SDI theory develop?
Who did he get to help? Did they buy in? What would have happened if they did not win?
He got Margaret Thatcher (UK) and Helmet Coal (Germany) for their support. They both bought into this. Without their support, he would not get away with this fake theory.
Do citizens know about the SDI plan?
What became the decoy for the SDI plan to become real?
The American space shuttle
Did the American people support the plan?
Yes, because of the space shuttle
How did the Soviets respond to the space shuttle?
They felt it was real, as we had a carrier going to space.
How were the space shuttles set up?
A plane on a rocket that can hold 40 satellites
How many space shuttles did we have?
Do the Soviets have the ability of using space shuttles yet?
What would happen if we launched all 3 space shuttles at the same time?
Ie changed a whole balance of terror for the Cold War.
How do the Soviets respond to the space shuttle?
They buy into it and try to fight us back.
Who were their leaders during the beginning of the SDI theory?
Konstantin Chernenko and Yuri Andropov
Describe Chernenko and Andropov. How did their backgrounds relate to their military strategy against the US?
They were both old, applied old military tactics to us by using their old Soviet military mentality training, which was to keep fighting back and get a war.
What happened to the Soviets after picking their strategy?
They fell into the trap Reagan wants them to get into. They start spending the money matching us dollar for dollar
What happens as the Soviets are trying to keep matching us?
The pressure builds on them, the people get upset and boil over.
What happens if the Soviets do not do something about pressure?
People get more angry, as they feel the strain of the economy trying to beat the US instead of helping their own people.
What happens with the anger of the Soviet people?
The USSR chooses a new leader.
Who is the new leader of the USSR?
He is different than any other Soviet leader, charming, nice, charismatic
What did the Soviets try to do with Gorbachev?
How does Gorbachev try to Out-Reagan Reagan?
He cuts him off with ease to show America they have nothing to fear. He also came to New York with his wife and was well-spoken.
What did Gorbachev think his trip to New York would do for the American people?
He used his charisma to show Americans there is nothing to fear and hoping this will deteriorate Reagan's support.
What is Gorbachev's first course of action?
Negotiating with Reagan, turning the heat down in the weapons matching battle.
What was the name for the negotiating between Reagan and Gorbachev?
What did START stand for?
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
When and where were the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks between them?
-Geneva in 1985
-Reykjavik in 1986
-Washington in 1987
-Moscow in 1988
What happened at Geneva in 1985?
Gorbachev was negotiating and asked Reagan to go for a walk and talk away from everybody to try to get him to work in Gorbachev's favor.
How do people feel about Gorbachev and Reagan going for a walk?
People are worried if Gorbachev is slick and can convince Reagan to agree with him.
Does Reagan fall for anything on his walk with Gorbachev?
What is Gorbachev's top demand before negotiating with Reagan?
getting rid of SDI
What is Gorbachev really trying to do with getting rid of SDI?
To tell Reagan if he gets rid of SDI, he will negotiate anything with him and lure him into losing the barrier we have with SDI.
Does Reagan take the bait of removing SDI?
What is the only treaty the two make?
The INF Treaty
What does INF Treaty stand for?
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty
What were the intermediate nuclear forces discussed in the treaty?
These were deployed in Europe that both sides contained.
What did the INF treaty do?
They concede these intermediate nuclear forces in and out of Europe
Why did the INF treaty concede these forces in and out of Europe?
Europe has no shield, like the SDI theory and Reagan wants to put his German and British supporters out of potential harm's way.
With Gorbachev under pressure, how does he try to vent the pressure with Reagan not taking his bait?
He comes up with Glasnost and Perestrokia
What does Glasnost translate to?
What did Gorbachev do in Glasnost?
He allowed for greater Freedom of Speech for his people.
Why did Gorbachev allow for more freedom of speech?
To show the US they are not as bad as the US says and he can vent his people's pressure and they can complain and express how they feel.
Does Glasnost create an expectation of change?
No, but it makes people feel better after venting it.
What could be the problem with Glasnost?
It gives someone with no complaint as a singled out person and could sway opinions if majority believes in something and put more pressure on the authority.
What does perestroika translate to?
What was the Soviet's economic system so far?
Soviets had command economy
What has caused the Soviets to reform their economic policy?
They are under pressure with Reagan's challenge with military and their people worry more about food and shelter.
What does Gorbachev do with perestroika?
He turns it to a free market system based on biggest needs.
What is the problem with the economy?
It cannot provide everyone's needs.
What does Gorbachev do to ensure people get their needs?
He prioritizes the spending and lets people get their needs if federal money is being spent on military goods.
Who did Reagan have as an anti-Soviet ally?
Pope John Paul II
What religion are both?
-Pope is Catholic
-Reagan is non-Catholic, but a fundamental Christian
Why do both support anti-Communism with respect to religion?
Communism is atheist.
Where is the Pope from? Why is this significant to being anti-Soviet?
He is from Poland, a republic part of the USSR
How did the conflict in Poland begin?
There was a labor union solidarity, but under Soviets, labor unions are illegal. There are about 1M members in the union.
Who is the leader of the large Polish union?
What happens to Walesa for being in charge of the union?
He spends years in jail
What did Reagan and the Pope feel about Walesa going to jail?
They do not like it and feel they should do what they want.
What do Reagan and the Pope do in response to the union issues?
They allowed the union to meet in the Churches of Poland to cover.
How did Reagan help get the unions to hide in Churches?
Reagan applied economic pressure on Poland, not allowing Polish airlines in US and turns up economic pressure
What is the big effect of Reagan's pressure on Poland?
They become the first republic to break from the Soviet Union.
Who was the first Polish Prime Minister?
When did Poland break from the USSR?
August 24, 1989
Was this Poland's first attempt to break from the Soviets?
What are the effects of Poland breaking from the USSR?
Spills through eastern Europe in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania all break away.
What did the labor strikes bring out about the USSR?
They show a weakness in them and these seceding nations are taking advantage of this.
What else is the other effect of Eastern Europe starting to secede?
The Unification of Germany
What event causes the Unification of Germany?
The Berlin Wall Falling
How many republics make up the USSR?
What is the largest republic of the USSR?
How did the strike pressure and secession pressure impact the Soviets?
It impacts them itself
With this pressure of the Soviets economically, what is easily done?
More republics can start to secede more easily because of the pressure put on the Soviets
Where does secession start?
In the Baltic with Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia
Why did the Baltic States secede?
They had own political and cultural traditions, did not like Soviet rule.
Who was part of the second round of breaking from the USSR?
It breaks into Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia
With all this secession pressure, what is brought out about the Soviets?
Their government is not being controlled well and they must change their government system.
What government does Russia come up with?
A Republic government with a President
Who was the first President of Russia?
When is most of the finishing touches of the Soviet Union finished?
After Reagan's Presidency, it was handled more by George Bush.
How did George Bush have handle the breaking of the USSR?
He had to apply the right amount of pressure and support and not to over power them and get them aggressive.
What was the benefit of beating the Soviets? What was its risk?
All this came at great costs and works for us, as it eliminates the Communist superpower of the world.
What are the big Middle Eastern conflicts?
-Russia and Mujadeen
What has been our role in the Middle East?
Our role as peacemaker relates to Camp David.
What are our interests in the Middle East?
-oil and OPEC
-containing the Soviets
-keeping Soviets out of the region
-alliance with Israel
Why do we care about our alliance with Israel?
They are the lone Democracy in Middle East, we care about their existence and conflict with Palestine.
What does the Middle East show us about peace?
not everyone likes peace
What happens to us with us being the peacemaker in the Middle East?
-We involve ourselves in trying to make peace and it makes us a target for battle
What has happened with Middle East conflict at the time?
Egypt has recognized Israel, and they are in conflict with Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, who are against Israel. There is also a war in Iraq and Afghanistan.
What is the big conflict group relating to Israel?
What does PLO stand for?
Palestinian Liberation Organization
What has been going on between the PLO and Israel?
The PLO uses terrorism, Israelis hunt them down, arrest and trying them, executing them in Israel.
With all their arrests and attacks in Israel, what does the PLO do next?
They move into Lebanon
Where is Lebanon located?
North of Israel
Why did the PLO want to go into Lebanon?
To go across the line, base in and out of Lebanon, do terrorism in Israel, and escape back across the line.as in a hiding land.
How does Israel respond to the PLO attacking and using Lebanon?
Israel invades Lebanon as they need to attack back when they see the PLO attacking from Lebanon.
What is the problem with Israel invading Lebanon?
Lebanon is a whole another country.
What happens when Israel invades Lebanon?
Lebanon and the rest of the regional anti-Israel countries rally around Lebanon to get Israel out.
What could the middle east rally with the Lebanon conflict cause?
A major war
What is risked for the US if this war broke our in Lebanon?
-Disrupts our oil imports and our security for Israel and we may have to get involved. Also, what do the Soviets do about this?
What becomes our role in Lebanon?
Negotiating with the PLO and Israel, trying to create peace and lower tension.
What do we do to break up the PLO-Israel conflict in Lebanon?
We get PLO and Israelis to listen to us and work out an agreement.
What did both Israel and the PLO listening to us represent?
This shows the respect and authority other countries had shown for us. It also showed our power in the world.
What did we want to do by talking to the PLO and Israel?
To get them out of Lebanon.
Why did we want to get the two out of Lebanon?
There could be a huge war with the whole region.
What do we do when we work things out with Israel and the PLO?
-We put Israel back to Israel
-We put the PLO back to the Gaza Strip and West Bank
-ask Israel to keep negotiating and compromise
-PLO needs to stop terrorism
Who is the PLO's leader?
What are the religions of each nation?
Describe the background between Israel and Palestine.
Israel was created after WWII, splitting the land with Palestine, and then they beat Palestine in a war to keep most of the land. Some Palestinians have no room to live, so they are going after Israel with terrorism.
After our role in the PLO-Israel conflict in Lebanon, what happens to us?
We have become a target for terrorism and these countries are trying to attack us.
What are some of the attacks that follow the PLO-Israel conflict?
-US Embassy in Beirut
-US Marine Barracks
Where did the Beirut attack take place?
What happened at the Beirut airport?
We are moving supplies in and out of the airport and a suicide bomber attacks us.
What was the result from the Beirut airport?
US airplanes would no longer travel through Beirut.
What happened with the marine barracks incident?
A Middle Eastern terrorist truck bomber bombed a marine barrack right through the wall, killing some of our marines in Beirut.
What was the effect of the marine barrack incident in Beirut?
You can no longer go straight through a barrack, you must go around to checkpoints.
What was another attack involving the PLO and Israel?
The Italian Cruise Ship, Achille Lauro
When was the Achille Lauro incident?
Describe what happened before the Achille Lauro and leading up to it.
PLO wants to release their prisoners in Israeli jails.
What happens with the Achille Lauro incident?
The PLO hijacked the ship leaving Egypt and holds passengers hostage, shipped to Syria and demanded the release of 50 prisoners.
Where were many of the passengers from?
How did Reagan respond to the hostages of the ship and the airplane?
He deployed Navy SEAL forces to prepare for a possible rescue attempt to free the vessel from its hijackers.
Where was the ship headed?
Toward Syria then Port Said, Egypt
What did the hijackers decide to do as they were heading up?
They decided to put the hostages on an Egyptian airliner and abandon the ship. They were flown towards Tunisia.
What happened to the airliner?
It was intercepted by people from ships linked to the USS Saratoga and they were directed to land at a NATO base in Sicily.
After the Egypt airliner landed in Sicily, what happened?
Under the orders of U.S. Secretary of Defense; there, the hijackers were arrested by the Italian police.
Why did they use an aircraft to take the prisoners?
They would take them to Libya where al-Qaddafi will protect them.
After our victory in arresting these terrorists in Italy, what are the effects?
More attacks in:
-Rome and Vienna
-Germany Bombing in Disco
What incident has created a small conflict for the terrorists and us?
Al-Qaddafi has drawn line of death in Gulf of Sidra, if someone crosses the line, they will die.
What is Reagan's response to the Libyan line of death?
Operation El Dorado Canyon, where Reagan has our fleet cross the line into the bay.
How does al-Qaddafi try to attack us back?
He tries to attack us with fighter planes.
How do we respond to al-Qaddafi's response of using fighter planes?
-We shoot the planes down
-We bomb his house
Was al-Qaddafi home when we bombed his house?
Who was killed in al-Qaddafi's house bombings?
It killed one of his wives, and his oldest son.
Who else is killed in the Gulf of Sidra incident?
What is the result of us winning the Gulf of Sidra incident?
PLO terrorists are performing more attacks.
What attacks are the PLO still doing?
-PanAm flight 73
-PanAm flight 103
How many died on the two PanAm flights?
Flight 73-20 dead
Flight 103-270 dead
Where was PanAm flight 103 flying out of?
Lockerbie, Scotland heading to the US
What are the three problems with Latin America?
What do the Juntas and unstable government lead to?
It causes military dictatorships which leads to unstable government and Communism.
Why do we care about Latin America?
-it is very close in our area
-we have economic investment in Latin America
-we worry about Domino Theory if Communism would expand
What countries dealt with Communist threats in Latin America?
Grenada and Latin America
What was the problem that caused the Grenada incident?
Communists from Cuba invade Grenada, overthrow their government and executed their leader.
Who was the leader of Grenada who was injured?
Why were we so concerned about Grenada's invasion?
-There were over 200 American students on the island at St. George Medical School.
-Domino Theory of Communist expansion in the western world
-Grenada is a big nutmeg producer
Why were we worried about the American medical students in Grenada?
Similar to Iran, could we get into a hostage crisis?
Why were we so worried about Grenada being a big producer of nutmeg?
That would take away a big import for us.
How did Reagan respond to the Cuban invasion of Grenada?
He launched Operation Urgent Fury
What did we do in Operation Urgent Fury?
We land 1900 Army Ranger Marines and attack the Communists
How did Operation Urgent Fury play out?
Within hours, we secure most of the island, a few days later, we rescue the students, take Communists as prisoners, and come back home with the students.
What is Reagan's big scandal as President?
The Iran-Contra Affair
Where did the Iran-Contra affair start?
What was happening in Nicaragua at the time?
A Civil War
Who is fighting in the Nicaraguan Civil War?
The Contras and Sandinistas.
Who were the Contras?
The Democratic forces, Reagan labeled them as freedom fighters.
Who were the Sandinistas?
How did Reagan respond to this Civil War going on?
US sends money and weapons to the Contras
What did Reagan feel about the Civil War in Nicaragua?
Reagan wants the Contras kept alive in body and spirit and needs them to win the war
What is the problem with Reagan giving aid to the Contras?
Congress looks at this Civil War and sees Vietnam
How did Congress see another Vietnam War in Nicaragua?
-it is a Civil War
-Communism v. Democracy
-guerrilla warfare is used
-no exit plan
What did Congress do because they did not want us to go to Nicaragua?
They pull the plug on the aiding and passed the Boland Amendment.
What really was the Boland Amendment?
A rider on a bigger bill, not a real amendment
What is a rider?
A sub-part of a check and balance.
Why do Congresses pass these rider bills?
If Congress wants a bill, but they know President will veto it, they will attach it onto another bill that the President wants.
Why do Congresses attach riders to larger bills?
President must reject it all or accept it all
Did Reagan approve of the bigger bill?
Yes, and that meant the rider bill was passed as well.
What did the Boland Amendment do?
It stopped direct help for the Contras and forbade us to give them financial aid.
When Reagan found out about the Boland Amendment, how did he feel?
He is furious and wants to keep people alive and he wants the Contras kept in this war.
What is going on in Iran and Iraq during the Contra affairs?
Between 1980 and 1988, Iran and Iraq are in a brutal dragged out war
What happens to Iran and Iraq during this war?
Iraq will be bankrupt and has to invade Kuwait and Iran is running out of weapons.
Why are Iran and Iraq fighting?
over land and oil
What did Reagan do with the Iran-Iraq war?
He has his people secretly sell weapons to Iran.
Why did Reagan sell weapons to Iran?
They are in desperate need of weapons and will pay the high price for it. This way, we make money to help the Contras in Nicaragua.
Is the Iran affair kept secret? Why?
Yes because Americans would be mad about it because of the Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Did the Iran-Contra affair violate any law? If so, which ones?
Yes, the Arms Export Control Act.
How did Reagan and his men violate the Arms Export Control Act?
In order to sell weapons to someone else, he needs Congress's approval, he secretly sells weapons to Iran.
Where did the money from Iran go towards?
It goes into a fictional fund called the “Lake Resources Group, Inc.”
What is the Lake Resources Group?
It is just a bank account name.
Where does the money go from the Lake Resources Group?
Money is filtered through many bank accounts, and is added to accounts of people who believe the Contras should be kept alive, and it is used to buy weapons to send to the Contras
After receiving weapons from us, how did things play out in the Middle East?
Iran uses their influence on Lebanon and the PLO to release the hostages back to the US, Americans held by the PLO in Lebanon get home because of Iran receiving weapons from us.
Who was the head of the Iran-Contra affair?
Who was Oliver North?
A colonel in Army who worked on this plan.
What incident blows the lid off the Iran-Contra affair?
The American plane flown by Eugene Hasenfus
What happens with Hasenfus's plane?
It is shot down above Nicaragua, he survives and is captured by the Sandinistas and has the weapons, and everything is leaked out.
How did Congress handle the Iran-Contra affair?
Congress does an investigation.
How did the investigation begin?
North testifies he was behind the Iran-Contra affair.
How did North feel about testifying?
He was proud he did it and said he would do it again.
Who else is investigated in the scandal?
Secretary of Defense Casper Weinberger, and George Schultz, Secretary of State
Does the investigation reach Reagan?
Why did it not reach Reagan?
There was no secret tape for evidence of him discussing it and he is able to get away with it.