Flashcards in Normandy to Rhine Video Deck (39):
What were the 3 operations discussed at the Arcadia Conference?
Operation Gymnast, Supercharge, and Operation Sledgehammer
What was Operation Gymnast?
an invasion of North Africa, two sub operations
-Torch-landing of US forces in Morocco into Eastern north Africa
Who led Operation Gymnast?
Eisenhower and Patten
What was Operation Supercharge?
involves British in North Africa in Egypt, led by Bernard Montgomery, which was a counter-attack into northwest Africa, in the middle, Germans were in North Africa, the Afrika Korps led by von Rommel.
What was the English Channel invasion of 1943?
crossing the channel, to establish, liberate French bring them back in and put more pressure on Germany, Stalin is angry because he is the only one fighting Germany at this point, somewhat of a cause of the Cold War because everyone is in Africa.
Why do Allies start with Operation Gymnast?
They need time and eliminate Luftwaffe as a threat, cross-channel invasion is too big a risk and years to get back. Round-up is too big of a gamble, so they go ahead with gymnast.
What was the code-name for the English Channel Invasion?
What was Operation Sledgehammer?
very vague plan, idea was if Russians were pushed back by Germans, if Soviets get into real trouble if they surrender or collapse, thought process was we need Germany into a two-front war, attack in Western Europe anywhere
What were two needs for a cross-channel invasion?
-air supremacy over the enemy and good landing craft
-amphibious shipping from water to land
What boat was used by Germany to get people ashore quickly?
Why did the US step up its bombing of Germany?
-Wear down the Luftwaffe
-Break German morale
Why was wearing down the Luftwaffe a reason the US stepped up its bombing?
needed air supremacy, if they shoot down planes and target factories, they won't be able to reproduce the planes, and their numbers will go down.
Why was disrupting industry a reason the US stepped up its bombing?
Hurt the industry's ability to produce war goods
Why was breaking German morale a reason the US stepped up its bombing?
Germany, hasn't fought on German soil yet, German people have not seen war, so to make it a reality, show Germans how war is.
What was the codename given to the D-Day invasion of Normandy and what year was it?
Overlord in 1944
What was the idea behind Operation Sledgehammer?
They need help and attack get help for the enemy, Germany has Soviets pinned down, if they get to the point, someone must take some pressure off and make them pay attention to someone else.
Why was Sledgehammer not done?
It was a suicide mission because they would send people into Europe and get annihilated
What special preparations were needed for the Normandy invasion?
-Photograph coastlines, study postcards, conducting raids, what are obstacles they will face?
Why was Normandy chosen for the invasion?
Normandy had good shipping to make landings.
Describe the deception plan used to fake out the Germans.
-Deception plan was drawn up, known as ice cream, knew Germans were spying and knew they would find out truth, put out false information, put fake dead bodies to fake them out, but it wasn't really the truth, most bombs we dropped were outside the landing area as a decoy.
Where were there other landings?
Norway, Brittany, and other places
What were mulberries?
designed as special harbor docks, interlocking docks, attacking cities are bad ideas, so they need to get people ashore with no port, so they brought their own, opened up Cherbourg, close to the D-Day site, where one was placed.
Describe the pipeline used at Normandy.
called pluto, under the ocean, used ice cream as decoy, need fuel for tanks.
What were funnies?
made new vehicles to get around coast, specialized for different terrains, flame throwing tanks, rather than fighting with metal detector, these tank beat up ground and if they stay on path, they destroy ground.
Why did the allies bring their own bridge to Normandy?
to get everyone across, so they didn't spend more money on it.
What else was formed before the invasion at Normandy?
-Formed Commando divisions, tested them, best places to land
-Bridge layers were made as well
-Lots of research had to be done about weather and timing.
-BBC broadcast was updating British about what was happening.
What was the weather factor with respect to the invasion?
Decided weather was good on June 6, so they decided they would be the first into Normandy.
What were the beaches of Normandy?
Who was appointed as Supreme Allied commander of the invasion force and when was he appointed?
Eisenhower in December 1943
Why was Cherbourg important?
It was a port city near the front with the docks, it was important to get to the port at Cherbourg to get supplies. It was the meeting place for the allies near Normandy.
What commander led the allied breakout from Normandy?
George S. Patten
When was Paris liberated? What can we learn from this timeframe?
It happened on August 25th, 1944, and we can learn the speed of the attack like the Blitzkrieg, pace of war is different, D-Day from surrender of Germany is less than a year apart. All the planning for D-Day paid off. Took 2 years to plan, only took less than a year to finish.
What was the objective of Operation Market Garden?
To attack Germany by going through Belgium to Norway and attack Germany eventually.
What was the goal of the German counteroffensive in the “Battle of the Bulge?”
To cut off British forces from rest of Allies during operation market garden, and take Antwerp.
What is the Atlantic Wall?
A system of concrete gun emplacements all along the French coast.
Why was the Atlantic Wall created?
Once Germany committed to attacking Russia, Western Europe was not much of a big deal, with small gray troops there.
What was the controversy about the Atlantic Wall?
Thought was to not get them ashore, put everything in front of them and keep them off the beach.
What was the problem with the wall?
Higgins boats will go up to the beach, and they may jump off the boat or get shot by the machine guns, choice was to fight without gear, or drown. Gives Germans a big advantage.