LBJ and the Warren Court Test Flashcards Preview

American Cultures II > LBJ and the Warren Court Test > Flashcards

Flashcards in LBJ and the Warren Court Test Deck (281):
1

Where did Johnson go to college first? Where did he major in there?

Southwest Texas State Teacher’s College, majored in history, and debate teacher,

2

Where did Johnson go to college second? What did he do there?

Georgetown Law School, not best education, but still worked out well for him for him to go into politics.

3

What did Johnson do in WWII?

a war inspector

4

How was Johnson rewarded after WWII?

received the Silver Star medal from Roosevelt. Not too much credit for Silver Star, he did enlist and showed his patriotism.

5

Describe Johnson's family upbringing.

middle class family and has seen poor, moved to Johnson City at age 5, father was President of Baylor University,

6

What was Johnson's political platform?

strong liberal

7

How was Johnson a strong liberal in office?

He would meet with Congressmen, get a physical threshold on them and put pressure on those who did not follow him well to vote for his laws.

8

What were Johnson's values as a strong liberal?

-wants government to solve problems
-Johnson cares about poor because he witnessed it as a child first hand

9

What did Johnson do to help the poor as a young adult?

He took a year off school to teach English to Mexican immigrants to read and write.

10

What was Johnson's political experience?

24 years in Congress as majority/minority leader, his peers recognize him as a leader for Congress.

11

How did Johnson play a role in JFK's administration?

He was his VP

12

When Johnson went to Dallas, what did he think?

He is thinking Kennedy is re-elected, he is helping get Kennedy’s platform get fixed

13

After JFK is killed, how does everything play out for Johnson transitioning President?

After Kennedy is killed, he has no time to restructure himself, dealing with the JFK fiasco and putting in new administration, he is very busy

14

What did Johnson's vote for me button contain? What was this symbol standing for?

Johnson’s button has a watermark of Kennedy on his political platform, he wants to tell America he will keep Kennedy’s work and continue on his political platform.

15

Who did Johnson run for in 1964?

Barry Goldwater

16

After finishing Kennedy's first term, what did Johnson do?

He ran again in 1964

17

What would Johnson's do if he won re-election?

He will continue the New Frontier and make it more liberal.

18

What was Barry Goldwater's political platform?

ultra conservative

19

How was Barry Goldwater an ultra-conservative?

He thinks smaller government, lower taxes, government is the problem, people can get own healthcare, form own welfare give more hard earned money back.

20

What did Goldwater think of JFK's Presidency?

He felt Kennedy was soft, gave away Cuba and SE Asia

21

What was Goldwater's plan for the Cold War?

He returns to Brinksmanship, back to using nukes as ultimate threat.

22

What was the "war on poverty"?

Poverty was a big issue at the time, and Johnson knew he had to fix this by using many educational initiatives and growth of welfare.

23

What was Johnson's plan for the Cold War?

Continuation of Kennedy’s foreign policy and flexible response, find ways to deal with Communism

24

What was Johnson's view of Civil Rights?

pro-Civil Rights, was a Civil Rights Advocate

25

How did Johnson campaign against Goldwater?

He put a anti-Goldwater ad on TV called the Daisy Ad

26

What was the Daisy Ad about?

Goldwater with his brinksmanship, you vote for Goldwater, you vote for nuclear war, death, this played on peoples’ fear of brinksmanship.

27

How did the Daisy Ad affect the election's results?

He won every electoral state except deep south and Arizona, landslide election, overwhelming support of American people.

28

What state was Barry Goldwater from?

Arizona

29

What was the popular vote's results?

Johnson-43M
Goldwater-27M

30

What was the electoral vote's results?

Johnson-486
Goldwater-52

31

Who controlled Congress?

Democrats

32

What were the numbers in favor of Democrats in the Senate and HOR?

Senate-68-32 Democrats
House-295-140-Democrats

33

What is the impact of a President with popular mandate?

Big popular vote, support of American majority, you can get more laws passed and more support to your name.

34

How did Johnson relate to the Great President Syndrome?

Johnson was a history major, he wondered how he would go down in history, what will people say about him as President in the future

35

What are the traits of all good Presidents?

-bring great social change in America
-they win the wars they fight
-get re-elected

36

How is bringing a great American social change a trait of a good President?

change America in what we are like

37

What were some of the great social changes by some of our greatest Presidents?

Washington-Revolution and Constitution
Lincoln-end slavery and get the US back together
T. Roosevelt-Progressive Era, busting the monopolies, allows unions to form
FDR-New Deal, WWII, changes how we view government
Jefferson-change in political parties, revolution of 1800, change in how government will function, and Louisiana Purchase, doubled the size of the country.

38

What were some of the wars we won by our greatest Presidents?

Washington-Revolution;
Jefferson-Revolution;
Lincoln-Civil War;
Teddy Roosevelt: Spanish-American War;
FDR: WWII.

39

What was Johnson's great Social Change?

The Great Society, put in social governmental programs, he greatly achieved this with Civil Rights.

40

What was the war Johnson fought?

Vietnam War

41

How was the Vietnam War unsuccessful for Johnson?

He loses in a bad way, not a great military leader, relies too much on generals, bodybags come home and they keep losing in Vietnam

42

Why did Johnson not run for re-election in 1968?

He cannot figure out Vietnam, leaves because he does not want to be that President who lost in Vietnam, so he lets someone else be that person.

43

What was the name of Johnson's social movements?

The Great Society

44

What was the Great Society a continuation of?

-The New Frontier
-The Fair Deal
-The New Deal

45

Who helped Johnson with consumer protection acts with his high liberalism with his books about it?

Ralph Nader

46

What did Nader's books lead to?

the creation of seat belts

47

What were the categories of Johnson's New Frontier Acts?

-education
-consumer protection
-civil rights
-environmental protection
-economics
-infrastructure

48

What was the Equal Pay Act?

Guarantees equal pay for equal work

49

When was the Equal Pay Act passed?

1963

50

What was the Civil Rights Act?

Promoted economic, political, and social equality

51

When was the Civil Rights Act passed?

1964

52

What was the Tax Reduction Bill?

cut taxes $11.5 billion to boost GNP

53

What was the Economic Opportunities Act?

VISTA, Job Corps, and EOE was created

54

What was the Wilderness Preservation Act?

Protected 9.1 million acres of forest land

55

What was the National Defense Education Act?

Increased federal aid to education

56

What was the Expanded Food Stamp Program?

Expanded existing welfaew programs to more families

57

What was the Voting Rights Act?

Promoted enfranchisement of minority voters

58

When was the Voting Rights Act passed?

1965

59

What did Johnson do money wise to improve healthcare systems?

He spent $1.4 B on healthcare and hospitals

60

What did Johnson do with developing more rail and bus systems?

He spent $375M in federal money on mass transit

61

What was the Medical Care Act?

Established the programs of Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor

62

When was the Medical Care Act passed?

1965

63

What was the Elementary and Secondary Education Act?

Government spent $1.3 B to improve school programs at all youth levels.

64

What was the Highway Beautification Program?

Federal money was used to clean up trash and plant more flowers along highways.

65

What was the Omnibus Housing Act?

used federal funds to spend on low income housing

66

What was the National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities?

Federal funding of artists and cultural organizations

67

What was the Water Quality Act?

Federal mandate forcing states to clean up waterways

68

What was the Clean Water Restoration Act?

Provided federal funds to insure safe drinking water

69

What was the Immigration and Naturalization Act?

lowered restrictions on immigration

70

What was the Higher Education Act?

Provided for students loans in scholarships

71

What was the Appalachian Development Act?

Federal government spent $1B for economic development of 11 states in the Appalachian region.

72

What was the Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act?

Set standards for automobile manufacturing

73

What was the Consumer Product Safety Act?

Provided for product safety standards and testing

74

What was the Freedom of Information Act?

Allowed citizens to access government records

75

What was Johnson's Minimum Wage Increase?

$1.25 to $1.40

76

What was the Truth in Packaging Act?

Set standards for accurate product labeling

77

What was the Model Cities Act?

Federal government spent money for urban development and creation of parks and recreation areas

78

What was the HUD?

Cabinet post for dealing with urban issues

79

What did HUD stand for?

Department of Housing and Urban Development

80

What was the DOT?

Cabient post for transportation control and development

81

What did DOT stand for?

Department of Transportation

82

What was the Upward Bound?

Created an educational program to prepare students for college

83

What was the Neighborhood Youth Corps?

An urban youth program to promote positivity in youth in struggling cities at the time

84

What was the Wholesome Meat Act?

Provided guidelines for "grading" meat products

85

When was the Wholesome Meat Act passed?

1967

86

What is gerrymandering?

The drawing of political districts in a way that this is discriminatory

87

What kinds of gerrymandering can there be?

-political parties
-racial
-rural-urban ideas

88

What process is carried out as a result of gerrymandering?

need to draw new districts every census and redraw boundary lines based on population

89

What was the background of racial gerrymandering?

The goals were to get blacks to the polls, whites tried to stop that in the south, when they could not stop it, gerrymandering was the next tactic after the Civil Rights Acts

90

How did southern whites carry out racial gerrymandering?

at they took voting districts with large black populations near the middle of the state, they would draw bizarre voting districts to divide the black population vote so the whites could be able to elect, so blacks cannot get candidates they want.

91

What is political gerrymandering?

Districts were broken up by population not equal area so the higher population has a higher voice and effects on the total votes.

92

What was the case of Gomillion v. Lightfoot?

discussed racial gerrymandering

93

When did the case of Gomillion v. Lightfoot take place?

1960

94

What was the case of Baker v. Carr?

established court jurisdiction in appointment cases and used the 14th Amendment to determine if this was unconstitutional

95

When was the case of Baker v. Carr?

1962

96

What was the case of Wetbury v. Sanders?

“one person, one vote” principle, draw voting districts by population not area for federal elections, every new census, redraw the districts, so everyone’s vote counts the same

97

When was the case of Wetbury v. Sanders?

1964

98

What was the case of Reynolds v. Simms?

created the rule of “one person, one vote” for state elections

99

What are the regulations for school prayer/religious promotion?

-teachers cannot lead prayer
-moments of silence must not specifically be for prayer
-only students can lead prayer and students are not forced to pray
-can play music but must be equally divided among all religions

100

What was the case of Engel v. Vitale?

prayer endorsed by the school created indirect pressure to pray, so it ruled that prayers cannot be read over the PA system in the schools with the Pledge of Allegiance. State cannot endorse prayer and separate people based on if they believe in God or not.

101

Are Comparitive Religious Classes okay in public schools? Why or why not?

Yes, it is certainly fine for educational purposes, but prayers and specific religious procedures cannot be endorsed

102

When was the case of Engel v. Vitale?

1962

103

Are teachers and coaches allowed to pray with students? Why or why not?

No, they are government employees and can't endorse prayer because this puts pressure on the whole team because everyone if did it on the team and one may feel obligated to do this

104

What is the rule for team captains leading prayer on teams?

If they are voted by players it is fine, but if it is voted by coaches, then it is not okay because coaches are government-employed.

105

What was the cause of the case of Abington v. Schempp?

In Abington, PA schools would read 10 Bible verses without commentary in class out loud.

106

When was the case of Abington v. Schempp?

1963

107

What was the ruling of Abington v. Schempp?

Court said no to the Bible readings out loud because of this not helping students’ ability in classes.

108

What are now the rules after the case of Abington v. Schempp?

Bible readings can only be used quietly by yourself, but academic usage is okay, as long as prayer isn’t used, banned Bible readings

109

What was the case of Murry v. Curlett?

banned religious procedures planned by schools and their employees, everything must be student-led because teachers are government employees in schools

110

When was the case of Murry v. Curlett?

1963

111

When was the case of Tinker v. DesMoines?

1969

112

Explain why Tinker v. DesMoines was brought to court.

Students were wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam war, schools felt this was un-American

113

What was the ruling in Tinker v. DesMoines?

Court said they could not take away students’ freedom of speech and expression of wearing the bands to the point where it is not disruptive.

114

What are one's Constitutional protections under the 4th Amendment?

4th Amendment protects one from illegal searches and seizures of property and themself.

115

What do police need to conduct a legal search?

a warrant

116

What is a warrant?

Police get it from the judge, the court’s order for a legal search from the police

117

When are warrants usually served to the police?

Usually served when police do not have big threats.

118

How do police receive a warrant?

They have to show some level for suspicion, need a legitimate reason to carry out a search for someone, tell a judge and he can give the warrant out for a search.

119

What are the Constitutional exceptions to a warrant?

-hot pursuit
-consent
-motor vehicle searches
-stop and frisk operations
-border/airlines
-emergency

120

Describe the warrant exception of hot pursuit.

if one gets away from police, they can run after you, police do have to see someone. If one goes home, and police can go to their home, police will side with the warrant because of the exclusionary ruling anyway.

121

What would policemen usually use during a hot pursuit?

Police will go with the warrant because of the exclusionary ruling anyway.

122

Describe the warrant exception of consent.

If they receive consent from a person they want to go into their house, they can go in with permission.

123

What is curtilage?

Police looking around the area your house without going in

124

What other kinds of consent can police use without a warrant?

-curtilage
-open fields
-abandoned items
-aerial search

125

What is an abandoned items search?

Putting something out for garbage and if police see it they can look through it

126

What is an open field search?

Police looking at an open fields and if they see something bad, they can investigate

127

What is an aerial search?

If police fly over and see an issue, they can investigate

128

What are the rules for police with motor vehicle searches?

They can search interior of the car, legally anything within arms reach of any passenger if they see something bad

129

What are the rules for police looking at trunks in motor vehicle searches?

They need permission to look but can use open field searches and they can question to look through the windows if they see something.

130

Explain the warrant exception of a stop and frisk operation.

It is random search, stopping every certain cars in a normal procedure, as long as one car is not targeted.

131

Give an example of a stop and frisk operation.

DUI checkpoint

132

Explain the warrant exception of border or airline.

Applied consent to get on airplanes, border crossings, can search car or luggage if you cross through another country

133

Explain the warrant exception of Incident to Lawful Arrest.

Police can search someone if they see a clear issue happening

134

Explain the warrant exception of emergencies?

If someone dials 911 and has a home emergency, police can go into a house.

135

What is the 5th Amendment?

right to due process

136

What are one's protections under the 5th Amendment?

This protects you from double jeopardy, as you need an indictment of charges to know what you are being accused of. This also protects you from self-incrimination and procedural due process.

137

What are one's protections under the 6th Amendment?

Gives one the ability to subpoena witnesses, one can force people to testify, makes trials public, protects you against the government as they can't try you behind closed doors.

138

What is the 6th Amendment?

public trial amendment

139

What are one's protections under the 8th Amendment?

Protects you from cruel and unusual punishment

140

What rights as a criminal do you have in the 8th Amendment?

As a convicted criminal, you have rights, how long can you stay in solitary confinement, what rights you have in prison

141

What ruling is now a controversial issue from the 8th Amendment?

the death penalty

142

What did the case of Mapp v. Ohio discuss?

Exclusionary Rule

143

What is the exclusionary rule about in Mapp v. Ohio?

If the police make an illegal search, any evidence they find cannot be used against the convicted person, as police have to get the warrant, follow the procedure of due process.

144

When was the case of Mapp v. Ohio?

1961

145

When was the case of Gideon v. Wainwright?

1963

146

Describe Gideon's background leading up to his case versus Wainwright.

Gideon was poor, illiterate, he stole things from a club. What he stole was a misdemeanor, but how he stole it was a felony. He went to court, petitioned the judge to get a lawyer, and the judge denied him a lawyer, was convicted.

147

When Gideon was in jail, what did he do? Why did he do this?

He filed a writ of habeas corpus, a legal term for wrongful imprisonment because he was denied a lawyer because he couldn't afford one.

148

What did the case of Gideon v. Wainwright discuss?

You have right to attorney in felony cases, not just capital cases, if you cannot provide an attorney yourself, you will be provided one.

149

What were the effects of Gideon v. Wainwright?

Gideon's case was ran again with a new lawyer and Gideon was acquitted of his charges and found innocent.

150

When was the case of Escobedo v. Illinois?

1964

151

What did Escobedo v. Illinois discuss?

having a lawyer during custodial questioning

152

Describe Escobedo's background before his case vs. Illinois.

He shot his brother in law, drive by shooting from a car, arrested, interrogated for about 12 hours. He then confesses and goes to jail.

153

After his interrogation, what did Escobedo claim?

A testimony is used against him, he appeals to Supreme Court about putting him in questioning situation without a lawyer and that it violated his 5th Amendment rights

154

What did Escobedo say he would have done if he knew his rights?

He would have not confessed to his murder

155

What were the effects of Escobedo v. Illinois?

Created the Escobedo Rule

156

What is the Escobedo Rule?

You get an attorney from time of custodial questioning, not just until trial begins.

157

Can one waive the Escobedo Rule?

Yes

158

When was the case of Griffin v. California?

1965

159

What did Griffin v. California discuss?

self-incrimination protection (5th Amendment)

160

Describe Griffin's background before his case vs. California.

Griffin is arrested for rape and murder of female friend, at trial, he doesn’t take the stand. In closing arguments, they claim him guilty because he did not come up to the stand. He took this to the Supreme Court.

161

What did the Supreme Court rule in Griffin v. California?

Supreme Court said he had protection from self-incrimination, you cannot use that against him in that trial.

162

When was the case of Miranda v. Arizona?

1966

163

What did the case of Miranda v. Arizona decide?

One must be advised of their rights when in custodial surroundings

164

Describe Miranda's background before his case versus Arizona.

Miranda is accused of kidnapping and rape, he is arrested, questioned for 2 hours and found guilty in court, but did not have an attorney because he did not know he could have one.

165

What did Miranda file an appeal about?

Because no one told him that he could use an attorney in custodial questioning.

166

What did the Supreme Court rule in Miranda v. Arizona?

Miranda Rights with respect to attorneys and trials and custodial questioning.

167

What other cases and rules did Miranda v. Arizona's ruling tie in with?

-Gideon v. Wainwright
-Escobedo v. Illinois
-5th Amendment

168

How did Miranda v. Arizona's ruling tie in with the other cases and rules?

Gideon (affording a lawyer), Escobedo (custodial questioning without attorney), 5th Amendment (protection of self-incrimination). These are now rights that any criminal has in a trial process and they must be told about these rights.

169

When was the case of Sheppard v. Maxwell?

1966

170

What did Sheppard v. Maxwell discuss?

Gag Rule and the Change of Venue for a case

171

Describe Sheppard's background.

He was a famous doctor and was accused of the murder of his wife.

172

According to Sheppard, how was his wife murdered?

Sheppard fell asleep, someone broke in, and this guy went and killed his wife

173

How was there a counterargument with Sheppard's account of his wife's murder?

There was no sign of anyone breaking in so they felt Sheppard killed her.

174

Why was Sheppard's case so popular?

Sheppard was popular doctor and the case was very intense

175

When was Sheppard convicted?

1954

176

What did Sheppard say about his trial? What did this lead to?

Wanted to appeal that he had an unfair trial because of the media and publicity of the case and he could not focus emotionally on the case.

177

What did Sheppard's appeal lead to?

The Gag Rule

178

What is the Gag Rule?

The publicity hurt the defendant, so this allows for a judge to close the court, to sequester a jury and lock the room without public there.

179

During Sheppard's case, what was everyone involved ordered to do? Why?

Everyone stays in the court and stays away from media and do not go home, to keep fair opinion and not make a huge deal about it.

180

Describe the change of location in Sheppard's trial.

They moved the trial in 1966 as Supreme Court redid the trial

181

Why was the change of location of Sheppard's trial carried out?

to create fairness and less media with the case and to keep everyone focused on the case at hand

182

What were the effects of Sheppard v. Maxwell?

When the case was redone, he was acquitted and innocent from the murder after 12 years in jail.

183

When was the case of Katz v. United States?

1967

184

What did Katz v. United States discuss?

“Right to Privacy in Public”

185

Describe Katz's background before his case.

Katz is running an illegal gambling area in an old payphone booth. Police knew it was public, police could not bother it, so police put listening device outside the phone, used recording against him.

186

What was the issue with the police's investigation of Katz?

The police did not have a warrant to search the phonebooth.

187

What was the ruling of Katz v. United States?

To search in areas of public, police would need a warrant.

188

When was the case of Terry v. Ohio?

1968

189

Describe the background of Terry v. Ohio.

There are three people standing outside a convenient store, waiting for right moment to rob the store, police officer sees them, notices it and does a terry search

190

What is a Terry Search?

A pat-down, airport random search

191

After the policeman's Terry Search, what did he find?

he finds guns on two of the potential store robbers

192

How did the potential store robbers respond to the policeman's search?

They came back and said he had no reason to search them because they had not done anything wrong yet.

193

What did the court say after the appeal by the potential robbers?

Court upheld the search because if a reasonably prudent man would sit there and think something bad will happen, then the police can conduct this search.

194

What did the victims counteragrue in Terry v. Ohio?

the scale of justice

195

What was the court's ruling in terry v. Ohio based on the scale of justice?

If public security is at stake enough that police can conduct a search without a warrant, you can consider where and when this takes place, but if police sense trouble, they can search without a warrant.

196

What is to subpoena?

To compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure.

197

Draw gerrymandering.

(Draw)

198

Who was Johnson's VP?

Hubert Humphrey

199

What was the state of Gomillon v. Lightfoot?

Alabama

200

Were the 60s and 70s the first Women's movements?

no

201

When was the Seneca Falls Convention?

1848

202

What was the Seneca Falls Convention?

Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, held convention, drew up declaration of rights for women.

203

What were the three main issues discussed at the Seneca Falls Convention?

-voting
-economic rights
-abolishing slavery

204

What was discussed at Seneca Falls in terms of voting?

19th amendment, ratified in 1920, women get right to vote

205

What was discussed at Senenca Falls in terms of economic rights?

To be able to control your own finances, if women owned a business, she needed a male cosigner to oversee finances for women, marriage automatically became her husband’s, if they got divorced, husband could take everything with him

206

Who gave the Keynote address at Seneca falls with regards to abolishing slavery?

Frederick Douglass

207

How were women's rights related to civil rights?

Women were compared as minority group, like blacks, two movements are very much linked together, women used inspiration from Civil Rights Movements to get their movement.

208

What did NOW stand for?

National Organization for Women

209

When was NOW founded?

1966

210

How was NOW founded?

22 women and men partly founded this over lunch

211

Where is NOW today?

It has 300,000+ members, annual budget of over $9M.

212

Who were the two main founders of NOW?

Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem

213

What book did Betty Friedan write?

The Feminine Mystique

214

What was the Feminine Mystique?

It complained about the idea of expectations for women, the stereotyping of women that all women want the same things.

215

What did Friedan feel when she wrote her book?

Friedan felt some want that, but not all women do, and women should have more opportunities in working and should not be forced to home and family.

216

What did Gloria Steinem do to promote women's rights?

She championed women’s issues in politics, birth control, marraige, and family through her views in her magazine.

217

What study prompted the Equal Pay Act?

In 1960, a study was done that showed women made 59c for every male dollar.

218

What are today's pay numbers, even after the Equal Pay Act?

Today, 15% more money for men between ages 25-50, and 38% more money for men between ages 51-65.

219

When was the case of Weeks v. Southern Bell?

1969

220

What was ruled in Weeks v. Southern Bell?

It included women as a protected minority group under the Civil Rights Act

221

When was the case of Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company?

1969

222

What was ruled in Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company?

Supreme Court found that if a woman was capable of doing physical labor of strong jobs, you couldn’t deny her the job just because she was a woman.

223

When was the case of Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Company?

1970

224

What did Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Company discuss?

Pay had to be “substantially equal” with the realization that it did not have to be totally equal, such as you could pay one more for a hire, but it had to be substantially equal, so it is close to fully equal.

225

What was the other factor with substantially equal pay?

pink collar jobs-jobs usually held by women

226

What is the rationale with equal pay with pink collar jobs?

Because these jobs had little prestige, looking at numbers, women are used to low pay because of little prestige jobs they had.

227

What was the other angle looking at women and how far they are willing to work?

Women seem to settle for low-paying jobs anyway, they take less prestigious jobs and less money, even if they try.

228

What is the glass ceiling theory?

At entry level positions, men and women are hired equally, promoted at the same rate, but when you get to middle management, women seem to stop, and men continue to go up in the ranks.

229

What is the ERA?

Equal Rights Amendment

230

When was the process of the ERA?

1972-1982

231

Did the ERA get its required 2/3 Congressional vote?

yes

232

What was the next step for the ERA?

They had to go to the states and ratify this, they needed 3/4 of the vote.

233

Did the ERA reach 3/4 of the states?

No

234

What were some of the states that did not ratify the ERA?

-Deep south
-Utah
-Arizona
-Illinois
-Nevada

235

Why did the deep southern states not ratify the ERA?

Because equal rights guarantee equal rights for every American citizen, deep south has always been against this.

236

Why did Utah not ratify the ERA?

Utah had mormons that essentially and socially controlled conservative government there

237

Why did Arizona not ratify the ERA?

Very conservative state, Goldwater was from there and did not like Johnson

238

Why did Illinois not ratify the ERA?

Because they knew women had all rights, it guaranteed something they already had, it was the obvious, legislative overkill

239

Why did Nevada not ratify the ERA?

They are very conservative outside of Vegas.

240

What was the main political issue with women?

Even though they had the right to vote, and their vote was represented, they felt there was no clear representation of women in politics.

241

Explain the heart disease theory during the women's rights movements.

Women went into workforce and started having heart attacks as well, the gap in age has decreased, as the stress level of work has caused heart diseases in both men and women, as men had more heart attacks from working, which is why they did not live as long as women.

242

Who were the two ever women VP candidates, who did they run with, and what year did this happen?

-Geraldine Ferraro in 1984 with Walter Mondale
-Sarah Palin in 2008 with John McCain

243

Who have been the only Secretary of States we have had? Who have been President from these three women?

Hillary Clinton (Obama), Condoleezza Rice (GW Bush), Madeline Albright (Clinton)

244

In 1977, what were the percentages of women in each government?

4% of Congress
4% of State Legislature
2 Governors

245

In 1999, what were the percentages of women in each government?

12% of Congress
21% of State Legislature
4 Governors

246

In 2007, what were the percentages of women in each government?

17% Congress
24% of State Legislature
9 Governors

247

When was the case of Griswold v. Connecticut?

1965

248

What did Griswold v. Connecticut discuss?

birth control

249

What was ruled in Griswold v. Connecticut?

FDA approved the use of a birth control pill, made birth control more reliable.

250

What were the effects of Griswold v. Connecticut?

This case extended the right to privacy in the area of birth control with married women. It was a her body, her rights.

251

When was the case of Eisenstadt v. Baird?

1972

252

What was Eisenstadt v. Baird's ruling?

extended the ruling of Griswold v. Connecticut to unmarried women

253

When was the case of Planned Parenthood v. Matheson?

1983

254

What was discussed in Planned Parenthood v. Matheson?

Extended the ruling of Griswold v. Connecticut to all minors.

255

When was Roe v. Wade?

1973

256

What was Roe's system with birth control?

He divided it into three trimesters.

257

Explain the first trimester of Roe's birth control system.

States can place no limits, first three months it is abortion on demand, for whatever reason you want.

258

Explain the second trimester of Roe's birth control system.

Months 4-6 lets states get control, states may place limits if they want except when the pregnancy endangers the health of the mother.

259

Explain the third trimester of Roe's birth control system.

Months 7-9, states may ban abortion.

260

What is the idea of the possible banning of abortion in Roe's third trimester of pregnancy?

The fetus has been carried for 6 months now, it is considered a life outside the womb.

261

When was the case of Planned Parenthood of Southeast PA v. Casey?

1992

262

Describe the background at the time before Governor Casey of PA's planned parenthood case.

Governor Casey had just signed PA Abortion Control Act

263

What was the criteria under the abortion abilities of the PA Abortion Control Act?

Women had to be counseled on options and tested, given options with what to do, if she wants an abortion, she is given 24 hours waiting period because of how serious abortions are.

264

What does spousal notification have to do with Planned Parenthood of Southeast PA v. Casey?

The man does not have to approve it, but must be notified of pregnancy or abortion, maybe woman would not want him to know

265

Why was Roe Challenged with the birth control?

They are placing limits on women’s rights to have an abortion.

266

What was the ruling in Planned Parenthood of Southeast PA v. Casey?

Supreme Court upheld this law in PA, 24 hour waiting period and counseling was not big of a deal with the decision made

267

When was the Education Amendments Bill passed?

1972

268

What is the Education Amendments Bill?

Makes a connection to Civil Rights Act, saying equal education opportunity is available.

269

What did FMLA stand for?

Family Medical Leave Act

270

When was the FMLA passed?

1993

271

What is the FMLA?

It guarantees you 12 weeks of unpaid leave from your job upon the birth of a child or the death/illness of an immediate family member

272

How frequently can you use the FMLA?

Once every 2 years

273

What is the timing rule for FMLA during one leave?

You have to take this leave as a block of time in a row, cannot break it up.

274

Which President passed the FMLA and which one vetoed it?

George Bush vetoed it once, but Clinton signed it first week in office in 1993.

275

What were the No Fault Divorce Laws?

You could divorce without going to court and proving fault

276

Before the No Fault Divorce Laws were passed, how did divorces get carried out?

You had to prove fault if divorced before this law in court and then you could divorce

277

What were the effects of the No Fault Divorce Laws?

Divorce rate went from 25%-50%.

278

What is considered sexual harrasment?

Includes unwelcome sexual comments or asking of someone about sex, even stereotypical comments in general

279

When does sexual harassment become illegal?

When it is so offensive or severe that it creates a hostile or uncomfortable work environment.

280

What is the line for sexual harrassment?

No, stop...if one jokes and is insubordinate about it, it becomes harrassment.

281

Can one file charges for sex harassment even if the comments are not directed at them?

Yes, if they witness the comments, they can file a claim.