Flashcards in USA Before WWII Deck (19):
What did the US think about if they were to pick a side?
They were following George Washington’s farewell address of saying not to be in wars or have permanent alliances.
Why did the US choose neutrality?
The Great Depression, WWI, None of our business, cultural heritage, America First Committee
Why was the Great Depression a reason for American neutrality for WWII?
During the depression, we were dealing with our own problems and the New Deal was the main focus of getting people to work and getting the economy fixed up. They didn't have the money, resources, time to worry about that.
Why was none of our business a reason for American neutrality for WWII?
We didn't care about what happened to other lands, we would have only made it our business if part of our land was damaged. We had no attack until Pearl Harbor, and that became our business. Up until that point, there was nothing that was our business.
What is a Gallup poll?
A public opinion poll
Why did we keep Neutrality because of WWI?
In 1937, there was a poll that said 2/3 of Americans said our involvement in WWI was a big mistake. We thought we shouldn't make the same mistake again by fighting again. We gained nothing, we had reparations, and Wilson’s points at Versailles was rejected. We were being ignored by Versailles, which caused another war, and US was giving them cold shoulder by saying we should not go.
Why was our cultural heritage a reason for American neutrality for WWII?
People could be German, Italian, or Japanese and they don't want to fight a war when we are so culturally diverse, are we willing to turn our gun on our family and relatives in other countries? The easy answer was to stay out.
Who were some of the famous people that didn't want US to be involved in the war?
-Herbert Hoover, former president
-Frank Lloyd Wright, architect
-Charles Lindbergh, pilot, he even met Hitler and thought he was doing good for Germany.
-Roebuck Robert Wood, CEO of Sears
-Charles Beard, historian
-John L. Lewis, head of AFL CIO, largest labor union in US.
-Most other political leaders said no to war as well.
How did Congress respond to the American population not wanting involvement in the war?
Congress passes Neutrality acts
What is the Neutrality Act?
It forbids the sale of weapons to nations at war-it will eventually drag in because we are helping other countries, ultimately it will seem they are favoring one side in case, we give them something nicer than the other side.
What was the "Cash and Carry" policy?
Policy on non-war goods-still need to trade non-war goods, they don’t extend lines of credit to other countries because if they lose they wont pay us back - (the only way we get paid back is if they win), they must pay cash right away so no one owes us anything. We are trying to avoid to risk losing something so the people who buy it make it their own problem, not US’s problem, examples are toys, oil, clothes, food, coal, steel, however, these are war goods because they can use these to save things and add it to supplies for the military.
What did the Neutrality Acts mean for the US citizens?
Discouraged US citizens from traveling abroad-they don’t want the US people to do something stupid like go to war and get shot off the US soil, and the US won't care. They were telling them don’t go because they wont be insured. This meant the freedom rules could be limited, not forbidden
What were the steps of Roosevelt's dilemma?
-Knows more than most American people
-Knows the US is the deciding force of the war
-He wants to get into the war and stop the evil of Hitler, Mussolini, etc.
-He is an elected official, and knows he has the power
-He knows we will be involved in the future
-He thinks though to stay neutral for now with the rest of the people and Neutrality Acts.
What does Roosevelt do to persuade people towards his way?
Fireside chats, makes addresses to people on foreign policy, paint pictures of how bad Hitler, Mussolini, and Hirohito are, and really sells his claim to go to war so he can make the people feel as he does
What does Roosevelt do while he has been doing the Fireside Chats?
-begins to build up military, as budget goes up 70% in three years,
-passes Two Oceans Navy Bill, so he can start loading up and getting everything ready,
-passes Selective Service Act, started active military draft before war.
-Because not legally in war, it still doesn't violate the Neutrality Act.
What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
US has been bad neighbor to Canada and Mexico, our neighbors. Germany was sending a letter to Mexico offering if Mexico attacks US, they would reward Mexico with getting their land back from their previous war. Roosevelt wants to be a good neighbor with Mexico, and wants to respect them and give them space and promises to give respect and space to the Latin American countries.
What was the Destroyers for Bases Deal?
a type of ship that is designed to destroy submarines with a depth charge, England wants destroyers, we send them 50 destroyers and we get bases in Caribbean and Newfoundland. England wants them because they can get to German subs heading for England. England wants to break up siege. These two bases would give us a control of the Atlantic Coast to start cutting off the Germans, doesn't legally violate neutrality act, but still violates spirit of the Act, and shows we are helping the good side with the British.
What was the Lend-Lease Act?
US provdes $50M in military aid to British and later that year to the Soviets, also give tanks, planes, guns, bullets. Still doesn't violate act, but violates spirit of the act, as they are using it. Definitely shows, we are picking the side of the British and Soviets.