Flashcards in Kent State Shooting Deck (88):
When did the Cambodian Incursion begin?
April 30, 1970
As a result of the war dragging on, what was happening at colleges?
Many protests were occurring at colleges with students walking out of class.
What University had a violent protest following the Cambodian Incursion?
What was the first day of Kent State demonstrations?
May 1, 1970
How many students were involved on May 1?
Where were the demonstrations held at Kent State on May 1?
What was the Commons at Kent State?
a grassy knoll in the center of campus traditionally used as a gathering place for rallies or protests
After the crowd dispersed on May 1, what happened next?
Another rally was planned for May 4
Why did the protests at Kent State take place?
To continue the protest of the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia and the protesters wanted to "bring the war home."
What happened on the May 1 rally?
-Some history students buried a copy of the Constitution
-Widespread anger broke out
Why did some Kent State students bury the Constitution?
To symbolize that Nixon had killed it
When did the second rallies break out?
Midnight on May 2
How did the second rally break out?
When people left a bar and began throwing beer bottles at police cars and breaking downtown storefronts.
What also happened that triggered the second rally?
A bank window broke, setting off an alarm.
How did people respond to the midnight outbreak at the bar?
The news spread quickly and it resulted in several bars closing early to avoid trouble. Later, more people had joined the vandalism.
When the police arrived at the bar attack, what had happened?
A crowd of 120 had already gathered. Some people from the crowd had already lit a small bonfire in the street
What were the types of people in the bar crowd at Kent State?
A mix of bikers, students, and transient people.
What happened after the police got to the bar?
A few members of the crowd began to throw beer bottles at the police, and then started yelling at them
What happened after the riots intensified after the police showed up?
The entire Kent police force was called to duty as well as officers from the county and surrounding communities.
Who was mayor of Kent during the riots? What did he do after the midnight bar attack?
LeRoy Satrom, and he declared a state of emergency. He called the Ohio Governor for assistance and closed all the bars.
Who was Governor of Ohio during the riots?
What did the closing of the bars do to the rioting?
It increased the size of the angry crowd
What did police do to control the crowd protesting about the early closing of the bars?
They spread tear gas to disperse the crowd from downtown, forcing them to move several blocks back to the campus.
What happened on May 2 at the start of the day?
-City officials and downtown businesses received threats
-rumors showed that radicals were in Kent to destroy the city and university
What did Mayor Satrom do after these rumors on May 2?
He met with Kent city officials and a representative of the Ohio Army National Guard
What did Satrom do after the meeting on May 2?
He called Governor Rhodes and he requested that the National Guard be sent to Kent
Did Rhodes grant Satrom's national guard wish?
Why did Satrom want the National Guard to handle the Kent State riots?
He felt that local officials would not be able to handle future disturbances.
When was the National Guard decision made?
When did the Guard arrive on May 2?
Before the Guard got there, what happened at Kent State?
A demonstration with thousands of people was taking place on campus, which included the ROTC building on campus burning.
Did anyone die from the ROTC fire on May 2?
How did the protestors observe the ROTC fire?
They were cheering and chanting "burn baby burn"
When police and fireman were at the ROTC fire, what did the protestors do to them?
They were struck by rocks and other objects while attempting to extinguish the blaze
When the National Guard arrived, what did they do to stop the protestors?
They made numerous arrests and used tear gas, one student was wounded from a bayonet.
What happened at the start of Day 3 after the Day 2 events?
-A press conference was held at the Kent firehouse
-Governor Rhodes pounded on his desk and called the students Un-Americans
At his meeting, what did the Governor say about his plan for the protestors?
They are going to use every part of the law enforcement agency of Ohio to drive them out of Kent.
What did the Governor compare the protestors to?
Brown shirts, night riders
What did Rhodes pledge in his speech on May 3?
-We will not let the protestors take over the campus
-very strong military group there to help stop this
What law was implemented during the state of emergency at Kent?
Did Governor Rhodes obtain a order from court for State of Emergency or martial law?
During the day on May 3, what did some unrelated students do?
They tried to clean up the areas of Downtown Kent.
How did people react to these cleanup efforts on May 3?
It was met with mixed reactions from local businessmen.
What did Mayor Satrom do during the day on May 3?
He put on a curfew until further notice, as he was under pressure from afraid citizens.
What started to happen on May 3 at night?
A rally was held at 8PM on the Commons.
When did guardsmen arrive at the first May 3 riot?
When the Guardsmen arrived that night, what did they do to break the crowd down on May 3?
They used tear gas to disperse the crowd.
How did the protestors respond to the May 3 tear gas by the guard?
The students reassembled at the intersection of Lincoln and Main, holding a sit-in.
What was the hope for the students at the May 3 sit-in?
To have a meeting with Mayor Satrom and the university president.
Who was the University President for Kent State?
When was the curfew enforced on May 3?
What happened during the May 3 curfew?
The guardsmen began forcing the students back to their dorms. A few students were bayoneted by Guardsmen when they refused.
What had been planned for May 4?
another protest at noon that day
How did University officials respond to this protest rumor for May 4?
University officials attempted to ban the gathering.
How did University officials try to ban the gathering setup for noon at May 4?
They were handing out 12,000 leaflets stating that the event was canceled.
How many people actually showed up at noon on May 4?
Where did the May 4 riot take place?
Near the Commons by Taylor Hall
How did the May 4 protest begin?
The ringing of the campus's iron Victory Bell, the football victory bell.
Who showed up at the May 4 riots initially?
Companies A and C
-Troop G of the 2/107th Armored Cavalry
-Ohio National Guard
-Units at campus
What did the responders first do when they got there on May 4?
They tried to disperse the students.
How did the May 4 dispersal process begin?
Harold Rice was riding in a National Guard Jeep, approaching the students to read them an order to disperse or face arrest.
How did protestors respond to this May 4 dispersal process?
They were throwing rocks, striking one campus patrolman and forcing the Jeep to retreat.
What did the Guard do when the dispersal process was taking place on May 4? Why was it ineffective?
They used tear gas but because of wind it had low effects on dispersing the crowd.
What did the protestors do after the tear gas was spread on May 4?
They launched more rocks toward the guards to chants of, "Pigs off campus!" The students lobbed the tear gas canisters back at the National Guardsmen, who wore gas masks.
After the failed crowd dispersion on May 4, what happened next?
A group of 77 National Guard troops from A Company and Troop G, with bayonets fixed, began to come at the hundreds of unarmed protesters.
As the guardsmen advanced with their bayonets on May 4, how did the protestors respond?
They retreated up and over Blanket Hill, heading out of the Commons area.
After getting over Blanket Hill, where did they go next?
They moved northeast along the front of Taylor Hall, with some continuing toward a parking lot in front of Prentice Hall.
After getting over Blanket Hill, how did the guardsmen follow the students?
The guardsmen went for the protesters over the hill, but they went straight, heading down toward an athletic practice field.
After reaching the athletic field, what did the guardsmen do next?
They were unsure of how to get out of the area, retracing their path and finding the protestors. Also, the students went near Taylor Hall and eventually met the guardsmen from a few hundred feet away. The rest of the students were still in the parking lot previously attacked at.
After getting back towards the parking lot, what happened to the protestors?
The guardsmen cleared them out of the parking lot, some stayed to confront them, and some threw rocks and tear gas containers.
After leaving the parking lot, what happened with the guardsmen and the protestors?
The guardsmen began to retrace their steps back up the hill toward the Commons area. Some of the students by Taylor Hall moved near the soldiers as they headed back down into the Commons.
After the guardsmen reached the students on May 4, what happened next?
Sergeant Myron Pryor began firing at the students with his .45 pistol.
How many guardsmen were firing at the students on May 4 and how many claimed to have had weapons?
29 of 77 had weapons.
How many rounds of ammunition were fired at the students at the commons on May 4?
How long did the shooting at the commons take place on May 4?
How many were dead from the shooting? How many were wounded from the shooting?
4 dead, 9 wounded
Who were the four dead students?
-William Knox Schroeder
Who of the four dead were actually protestors?
What were the other two dead students doing when they were shot dead?
They were walking from one class to the next.
Why was Schroeder's death ironic?
He was part of the ROTC on campus and the ROTC was the enemy of the protestors, not the guardsmen.
What was the closest distance to a gun of those that were wounded? For dead? Which dead person was it?
71 feet for wounded person, 225 feet for Miller when he was shot.
What was the average distance between the guardsmen and those who were shot?
How did students respond to the death shootings?
Many angry students were ready to launch an all-out attack on the National Guard.
What did others do in order to stop this intention from the students after the death shootings?
Many faculty members pleaded with other students to get people to leave the commons.
Who led the faculty in the student stopping from retaliation from the death shootings?
Geology Professor Glenn Frank
After Frank's help of getting the students out, what happened to the scene?
In about 20 minutes, the students left the Commons, as ambulance personnel tended to the wounded, and the Guard left the area.
How many colleges shut down because of what happened at Kent State?