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Flashcards in Civil Rights Test Deck (218):

What was the main reason Black Radicals emerged?



How does MLK feel about where he is with the Black Radicals?



Why is MLK feeling good about the Black Radicals?

Kennedy has proposed a Civil Rights Act movement, and he made the Dream Speech and the crises have paid off. It has been 10 years since the bus boycott, they are much closer to their goal. It has come with lots of sacrifice, but have achieved the goal.


Why did the Black Radicals emerge at this point?

To have more momentum, push more, they have some hope, revolution goes on the upswing to have a chance to go after it. They see an opportunity and want to take advantage of it.


When is the Black Panther party created?



What is the purpose of DeJure Equality?

to promote economic, social, political equality.


What is DeJure Equality?

Jim Crow Laws have been replaced by the Civil Rights Act


When was the Civil Rights Act passed?



What becomes the problem with DeJure Equality?

It is not enforced well in some areas.


What is the effect of DeJure Equality laws not being enforced well?

The violence does not stop and people keep disobeying it. This led to DeFacto racism


What is DeFacto racism?

Just because the laws changed it did not mean that attitudes changed Blacks still faced a great deal of discrimination and prejudice.


What are the violence numbers for the year that the Civil rights act was passed?

-30 firebombings
-80 mob attacks
-35 murders


Why did the white society perform these attacks in DeFacto racism?

Society is frustrated, so they take it out on something else, natural anger reaction.


How did King respond to the DeFacto racism and what did he tell blacks to do about it?

Turn away from violent retaliation


Why does King strongly urge anti-violence to the DeFacto response?

Violence will make it worse and the whites can now blame them and make new ways and excuses to punish them.


Who was Malcolm X and how did me make a name for himself?

he thinks opposite of King, thinks violence is the answer and tells the black community to go this way.


Why did Malcolm X feel violence was the answer?

He is human and should be able to take it and have the chance to have self-defense violence. He doesn't deserve the abuse and has a right to defend the community.


What did blacks turn to after the racism kept up during DeFacto?

They turned to Black Pride


What was Black Pride and what was its purpose?

Blacks now had hated the whites, so they used different styles to separate themselves and to throw shame on America and be proud of who they are and show their uniqueness to the whites that no longer accept them.


What were some styles the blacks used in the Black Power Movement?

afros, dreadlocks, African colors, slang, black power symbol


Why did the blacks turn to Black Power?

They wanted it to be their community and whites were not allowed.


What controversial event happened with respect to the Black Power salute?

In the 1968 Mexico Olympics, two black runners won medals and during the national anthem, instead of putting their hands on their hearts, they did the black power symbol.


What was everyone's reaction to the whole Black Power Movement?

Anger and some violence


When did many black race riots take place in America?

Between 1965-1968


What part of the country did many of these black-led race riots take place?



How do northern whites react to these black-led race riots?

We are surprised because racism was a southern thing, and we accept blacks.


Why did the black-led north riots take place?

Because of DeFacto, not from the south


What do some northern cities do after the riots are going on?

The nation forms the Race Riots Committee


What were some of the big northern race riots?

Watts (part of LA), Detroit, Harlem


What did the Race Riots Committee do about these riots?

They begin to look at the causes of riots.


What was the Kerner report?

The report the Race Riot Committee put together to figure out the causes of the race riots in the north.


What were the four points discussed in the Kerner report?

-Frustration over the lack of Civil Rights progress
-Advocation of violence by racial leaders
-Economic conditions of inner cities
-Riots taking place more during Summer


How does Frustration over the lack of Civil Rights progress relate to the Kerner report?

contrast between DeFacto and DeJure, does not stop hate and stereotyping here.


How does advocation of violence by racial leaders relate to the Kerner report?

The first time this has happened out of frustration and saying violence is the answer, even with MLK saying that civil disobedience is the answer, no violence, it only could cause the blacks more problems. People are advocating that violence is the answer.


How does economic conditions of the inner cities relate to the Kerner report?

Vietnam war is going on, government is spending lots of money, Johnson is starting war on poverty other society programs, we had to increase cost of living, and poor are hurt the most, because they are being put further behind economically.


How does the change of seasons relate to the Kerner report?

Blacks are outdoors more this time of year because there is no AC, warm, humid and are more angry about the weather in general. This frustration will start a spark and give them a reason to riot. There is also no school so kids are out on the street. Other seasons the weather is too cold or too nice and summer's daylight is longer.


What was the Selma March?

a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, AL, to show support for Voting Rights Act


When was the Voting Rights Act passed and who passed it? Who led this group of those who passed it?

1965, the Council of Federated Organization, started by Kennedy.


What kind of people did the CFO consist of?

volunteers from SNCC, NAACP, CORE, SCLC


What was the issue with having volunteers in the CFO?

they did not get paid, so they only have limited impact because they had to count on people.


What did Johnson do as a result of the volunteering issue?

he hired federal workers


What was Johnson's idea for what the federal workers he hired would do?

go door to door and help blacks to vote to increase equality


Why did Johnson make the federal workers do the door to door job?

An investigation found out that blacks did not vote because they did not know how to register.


What was the Voting Rights Act?

Followed up the Civil Rights Act and allowed all blacks to vote without grandfather clauses, literacy tests, etc.


What bridge did MLK cross during the Selma March?

Edmund-Pettus Bridge


What happened to MLK and the others from the Selma March?

They are stopped and turned around by cops and other groups, which beat the protestors across the other side of the bridge.


How did Johnson respond to the incident at the Edmund-Pettus Bridge?

He makes sure this march keep going forward.


Who founded the Black Panther Party and where was in founded?

People out of SNCC and in the Bay Area, CA


How many members were originally in the Black Panther Party when it started to spread?



What were the points to the Black Panther Party's platform?



What was the Black Panther Party's idea of self-sufficiency?

stop supporting a system that is oppressing you, rent from black landlords, disobey the system treating you poorly, keep your money in your own community.


What was the Black Panther Party's idea of self-defense?

violence in self-defense, main goal is human rights


What was the Black Panther Party's idea of revolution?

this is our main goal, keep fighting


What happened to Malcolm X after creating some race rioting violence?

He got into police trouble


What was the Black Panther Party's conflict with the police?

They rode in cars around with a police scanner and bats and hear call over the radio and show up.


Why did the Black Panthers have the police scanners?

If there was a mugging in a white spot police would be there quickly, if it was in a black spot, they would purposely not care, which made the Panthers feel oppressed.


What was the purpose behind the Black Panthers being policemen for blacks?

If the cops do not protect us, we will protect our own community


How did the Black Panthers carry out their police investigations?

Carried fire arms, hear call over scanner, arrested people from their own party. They held them till the police got here.


How did the police respond to the Black Panther arrests and how did the Panthers respond to this police reaction?

Police felt it was problematic. Panthers used physical intimidation towards the police if they did not attempt to help out blacks.


Who founded the Nation of Islam and when was it founded?

Wallace Fard in 1930


Who was the leader of the Nation of Islam?

Elijah Muhammed


What was the goal of the Nation of Islam?

Goal was violence to push the movement and
"Black Nationalism"


What were the beliefs of the Nation of Islam?

Islam has Muslim beliefs to follow in Quran, teachings of Alla and Muhammad


What is a difference between the Black Panthers and the Nation of Islam?

The Muslim religious beliefs by the Nation of Islam


What was the concept of "Black Nationalism"?

Alla would deliver to black community a state for a Black USA.


What was the Black Nationalism theory compared to?

It was similar to Marcus Garvey's theory of sending all blacks to Liberia an American colony in Africa


Why did Marcus Garvey have the idea about Liberia?

They will never be treated as equals and all are deserving equality. There will always be a level of true prejudice, but there must be separation if they cannot achieve equality. Similar to Jews in Israel. They wanted to have a black separated state, where they feel equal and happy


What could be an issue with the Liberia issue?

if they want to leave or what about Interracial couples


What was Garvey's main intention for mentioning the Liberia plan?

To strike up national debate and negotiation, and add some shock value


How did Malcolm X respond to the Nation of Islam?

He created Muslim Mosque, INC


Why did Malcolm X create Muslim Mosque, INC?

Malcolm X and Elijah Mohammad don’t like each other,


Was Malcolm X originally good with the Nation of Islam?

Yes, he was part of it


Describe Malcolm X's life before becoming a black radical

He dealt drugs, gambled and had sex with other men to make money. He lived in Flint, MI and moved to Harlem. He had a rough life and committed many small crimes.


Describe Malcolm X's pilgrimage to Mecca.

1964 he goes to Makkah and isn't allowed to join.


After the pilgrimage, what does Malcolm X do next?

Studies Islam in Egypt and realizes that:
-Islam is not a religion of hatred, religion of peace. Understands that he is wrong
- Changes his name and goes back to America and preaches about integration.
-Apologizes to MLK.


What was Malcolm X's new name? What was his original name?

El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, Malcolm Little


When and where was Malcolm X assassinated?

February 21, 1965 in Harlem


Describe Malcolm X's assassination.

He is giving a speech in New York and is shot by 3 people of the Nation of Islam. The shooter turned on him because he was a backstabber.


When and where was MLK shot?

in Memphis in 1968


What is MLK doing at the time before he is shot?

King is working on the next phase of equality. King is working on the defacto. He is supporting a union mostly of African-Americans. MLK is trying to advance the de-facto equality.


Where is MLK when he is shot?

standing on his balcony in his hotel


Who is MLK's assassin?

James Earl Ray


What is James Earl Ray's Background?

A nobody, high school drop-out, prison escapee.


What is Ray's punishment?

Sentenced to 99 years in prison (life time)


When does Ray die?

1998 at the age of 70


Where was Ray arrested?

In London at the airport, as he had a fake passport


Describe Ray's escape from the shooting and how it led to his punishment.

After he shot MLK, he fled by car to Canada to hide for a month and then flew to London. At the airport when he tried to leave, his passport was fake and he was caught, brought to Tennessee for the trial, and was charged with the murder.


Who was Jesse Jackson?

Tries to continue movement but is unsuccessful.


Who was Autherine Lucy?

African American that was integrated into a white university in Alabama


What happened to Lucy at Alabama?

She was expelled later after acts of riots and violence


As a result of Lucy's violence, what did the white southerners think?

They could use violence to keep blacks out of their schools


What was Eisenhower's philosophy for school integration?

if school integration moved too far too fast that
there would be many problems


What authorities kept segregation in schools in the south?

State troops, National Guard, were being used to only admit whites into schools


How were the state troops' goal of school segregation politically illegal?

They violated federal law, even though it was the state law for some states in the south.


As a result of the school segregation, what was happening in certain southern states?

Defiance of federal law was spreading


Who did many blame for the school segregating events?

Many people blamed Eisenhower for these extremist acts


After the school riot in Little Rock, what did Eisenhower do?

Eisenhower sent in paratroopers of the 101
Airborne Division


Describe the Paratroopers of the 101 Airborne Division and why Eisenhower chose them to stop this school segregation.

-These were the paratroopers that jumped in Normandy
- Eisenhower acted forcefully, even though it took him a while to make this decision
- He wasn’t going to let state law overrule federal law


What happened after that school year with the riots?

The governors of Little Rock and in Virginia closed schools


What was the goal of Civil Rights Movement in Albany?

They tried to end all discrimination in Albany


Who controlled this Movement in Albany?



What does SNCC stand for?

Student National Coordinating Committee


Describe the people of SNCC.

- Made up of youth
-Sometimes too passionate for a fast and bold result


Who were the Little Rock 9?

Nine black high school students that had good grades from other states


Who was governor of Arkansas in 1956?

Orval Faubus


What scared the blacks in the south after Brown v. Board of Ed was decided?

Shutting down of NAACP in Alabama and in other states and the resistance by the whites


What happened to Autherine Lucy when she went to Alabama?

White students protested in the streets against her, she responded with violence and was suspended.


What started the Campaign in Albany?

Three SNCC members: Charles Sherrod, Cordell Reagon, and Charles Jones.


Who was the head of the local Youth Council of the NAACP in Albany and why was he concerned?

Thomas Chatmon. He was highly opposed to Sherrod and Reagon's activism. As a result of Chatmon pressing his opposition some members of the African-American Criterion Club in Albany considered driving Sherrod and Reagon out of town, but they did not take this action.


How did the protests come about in Albany?

It quickly became a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city. Bus stations, libraries, and lunch counters reserved for White Americans were occupied by African Americans, boycotts were launched, and hundreds of protesters marched on City Hall.


What happened in Boynton v. Virginia?

Supreme Court ruled that interstate buses and all facilities that serve passengers (inside a terminal) all had to be integrated. This was formed by the ICC-which banned taxing special on certain things.


What was the Civil Rights Act?

Kennedy proposed Civil Rights Act to Congress after riots in Birmingham. The law outlawed discrimination based on race,skin,color or national origin.


What was the Voting Rights Act?

Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act resulted in the mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South.


What were the Freedom Rides?

Another form of non-violent protest as protesters would ride on buses from place to place going against the segregation laws of the transit system. Blacks sat in the front, whites in the back etc.


What southern city was subject to the lunch counter sit-in and store boycotts?



During what holiday season did the Nashville boycotts take place and why?

Easter because it was a big buying season so people were out more.


What caused the people of the city of Nashville to hold the first major march of the Civil Rights Movement?

The shooting at the students' defense attorney' home and part of the college across the street.


What was the turning point in breaking down the lunch counter segregation?

When the mayor was asked the question about the segregation and him personally responding his opinion rather than professionally responding a political view


What was SNCC and why was it formed?

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee-students from all over gathered in Raleigh


Why did the black ministers of the south endorse JFK for president in 1960?

They talked to Mrs. King while MLK was in jail for help. Robert Kennedy called authorities to get King out of jail and he was released a day later.


What civil rights organization planned the Freedom Rides?

CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)


How were the Freedom Rides founded by CORE?

They were founded through the north in WWII, formed by northern racism during WWII


What was the goal of the Freedom Rides?

Have an interracial group come through with the roles reversed (whites in back, blacks up front). When blacks got on the bus, they would go up front and refused to move. They started in Washington, DC and went to New Orleans, through the most racist states in America.


Who was James Farmer?

An assistant to MLK in saying that a nonviolence method of civil disobedience will be the answer to blacks getting free.


What did James Farmer mean when he stated that they counted on racists to create a "crisis"?

To make the federal leaders do something because they knew it would help their cause by drawing attention and they were already playing games with peoples' lives.


Where was the first Freedom Ride bus attacked and burned?

Aniston, AL


After the Aniston attack, what did Kennedy do?

He wanted to speak to the drivers and talk to his cabinet about the issue.


Who was James Zwerg?

A white Freedom Rider from Madison, WI


What did Zwerg do at the Jackson mob?

He walked off the bus in front of the blacks and protected them while the mob was going on.


Where was the second road block for the Freedom Rides?

Jackson, MS-there was a mob


What was Zwerg's attitude after his heroics with the Freedom Riders?

He felt that he did not have to deal with racism all his life, but others he fought for did. It was worth it for those people.


What compromise does President Kennedy and Robert Kennedy (attorney general) make to ensure the safety of the passengers?

A compromise that allowed Freedom Riders to be arrested. He made sure they could work with Mississippi Law.


What is the ICC and what role does it play in the crisis?

Interstate Commerce Commission-they write the regulations for the Kennedys' compromise.


What happens to Justice Department official (Seigenhalter) when he attempts to rescue two Freedom Riders?

He is hit in the head with a pipe by people at the mob.


Who was PeeWee?

A black prisoner who was asked in prison to punch another black prisoner as a punishment.


How did PeeWee respond to his order?

He was crying because he was also black so it hurt him to punch the prisoner. Each time he refused he was threatened that he would lose his mattress/bed. He held onto his mattress


Where did the second Freedom Ride bus get blockaded?

Birmingham, AL


Explain how the FBI handled the Freedom Ride incidents.

There was a possibility that the FBI knew about the Freedom Rides before they happened but they said nothing about it and let the attacks happen because they were racist. Some agents were in the KKK, so they could be incompetent to pass the information. They were playing games with the government and peoples' lives.


What was Brown v. Board of Ed?

(1954) - a landmark case in that ruled that state laws that established separate public schools in terms of black and white children were unconstitutional and overruled the
ruling in the Plessy vs Ferguson.


What did the NAACP stand for?

National Association of Advancement of Colored People.


Who was Asa Philip Randolph?

orginal founder of NAACP who proposed civil rights march during WWII


What was Executive Order 8802?

companies contracted with the government cannot discriminate based on race.


Who was Emmett Till?

14 year old boy who was killed in Mississippi for flirting with a women. Killer was
found not guilty.


What was the Nashville Sit-in?

This lasted from February 13 to May 10, 1960, were part of a nonviolent
direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in downtown Nashville.


What is Civil Disobedience?

the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws,
demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil
disobedience is a symbolic or ritualistic violation of the law, rather than a rejection of the system
as a whole. It is usually a non-violent protest.


Who wrote "Civil Disobedience"?

Henry David Thoreau


Explain Thoreu's Civil Disobedience principles.

Thoreau objects to government fighting Mexican-American war, and about Texas being added, disagrees with war because it was a war fought to expand slavery. Therefore, he cannot pay taxes to help government pay for slavery


What are some methods of creating Civil Disobedience?

boycott, protest, rally, tax refusal


How did MLK use Civil Disobedience in his fighting for freedom?

He wants people to look at judgments with nonviolence, to put pressure on the segregation system; south believes they are right with their segregation system, has to have pressure on system to change it.


What is a boycott?

internal pressure, taxes, loss of profit


What is internal pressure?

When people involved or affected in an incident start protesting and put pressure on the system to change.


What is external pressure?

People from outside sources put pressure on the system, even if they have nothing to do with the issue.


What did King think a violent protest would do during the Freedom Ride?

A violent response would keep them thinking they are right of what they are doing.


What is an example of external pressure during the civil rights?

Freedom Ride or Little Rock 9


What is Thoreau's view of society and how we respond to issues?

Thoreau feels 999/1000 of us are patron of virtues, and we do not really act in that way.


What is the Majority of One philosophy?

if you are morally obligated to yourself, and if you disagree, you should not be doing that. Your moral obligation is to yourself, so it should be 1/1 to yourself. However, one person can make a difference and change peoples’ moral obligations and beliefs.


What is a patron of virtue?

a person following and supporting a virtuous thing.


What is a virtuous person?

someone who leads a virtuous thing


What were the 3 Civil Disobedience protests? Which of these turn out positive or negative for King and his followers?

-Albany (-)
-Birmingham (-)
-March on Washington (+)


How did the blacks falter in Albany?

the whites figure out counterstrategy, they figure out what King is trying to do for civil disobedience and they do too much trying to defeat racism all at once


How did the blacks falter in Birmingham?

-Birmingham was a city with strict segregation laws, had bomb attacks, many blacks had fought it.
-When one man tried to de-segregate the city buses, his home and Church were bombed in Birmingham.
-A school attack wasn’t stopped by the city government.
-Jim Zwerg and Freedom Riders were attacked on Mother’s Day, city was embarrassed.


Who was Birmingham's governor at the time and how did he handle racism?

George Wallace, he made a speech to resist blacks civil rights.


After the Freedom Rider attack, how did Birmingham respond?

They might want to change as the city got lots of bad press for the attack


What were MLK's two greatest defeats?

-Albany and Birmingham


After the blacks failed once in Albany, what did they do next?

SNCC tried to help the black community here.


What happened that November in Albany?

A federal agency ordered for desegregation, but students were arrested for going into white school.


How did blacks make a big mistake in Albany?

You need a narrow focus in civil disobedience, SNCC is trying to eliminate it everywhere, too big a plan. They did not investigate what happened to them right away.


Who was the reform leader in Albany and what did he and MLK do?

Dr. Anderson-he brought MLK in to make a speech.


What happened to Anderson eventually in Albany and how did King respond?

Anderson was arrested and King wanted him released.


What has now become the biggest roadblock in the whole movement during the whole Albany movement?

There is division between movement-egos are in way between SNCC and SCLC. This hurts internally and leaves the government with an opportunity.


What does the NAACP say during this internal conflict with SNCC?

SCLC says that if you want King, you have to follow us. However, SNCC wants King to follow them with his attention.


What are the 4 steps of Civil Disobedience?

1. Collection of the facts to
determine whether injustices are alive.
2. Negotiation.
3. Self Purification
4. Direct action


How did the impacts of WWII cause black protests?

African Americans are serving their country but they are being stripped from
their rights at home. Going to better jobs which gives them economic power so they want change. Executive Order 8802 shows change can be forced.


Who was Laurie Pritchett?

He was the Chief of Police in Albany from 1961-62, and his actions were to suppress the city's civil rights demonstrations


When the blacks protested on the streets of Albany during the SNCC/NAACP conflict, what were their limitations?

-Pritchett only allows two people per block to advertise
-When they were arrested Pritchett distributed prisoners around different jails all over because the protests were only in downtown Albany.


Why did Pritchett limit two people per block?

So it doesn't draw news attention and there is no pressure, but he did not deny them the ability to protest. Two people doesn't feel safe. He reverses pressure on the blacks. They are civil in arrests, but they cannot react.


Why did Pritchett distribute prisoners around different jails all over because the protests were only in downtown Albany?

They always can arrest more in the city anyway and just eliminate black people from the city and keep it spread on the outskirts so the bonds weaken and downtown the diversity has been eliminated.


What happened to MLK during the Albany protest?

King and another black man went to jail for 45 days, but someone anonymously bailed them out and brought big news about it.


How did the black community in Albany respond to King's arrest?

Blacks kept marching and just left it alone, overall it was a big struggle that essentially set up for the Birmingham movement.


Who was Booker T. Washington and what was his view on Civil Rights Movements?

former slave, wrote “Up-from Slavery”, believed in a gradual approach
to integration. Can’t change people’s opinion about slavery with a stroke of a pen. Set up
schools to give Blacks marketable skills (plumbing) and give them economical equality. Use
money to pressure politicians to change laws, social equality will rise once people get to know
each once they are equal through laws.


Who was Henry DuBoiß and what was his view of Civil Rights movements?

graduate of Harvard, never went to the South, never experiences slavery. Never
had racism hold him back, believes that everybody is entitled to equality in America. Believed he
shouldn’t have to wait for something that he is entitled to.


What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, AL.


What sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

Rosa Parks' protest about bus seating


How did the Bus Boycott lead to the whole Civil Rights Movement?

MLK saw this happen when Rosa Parks was arrested and the whole black community decided to keep protest after this incident.


After Albany, what happened with the Federal Court's opinion?

The Federal Court started ruling in favor of the states, because they were not doing any violence or harm to the African Americans.


After MLK was released from Albany jail, what did he and SCLC do?

They moved to Birmingham


Who was the Mayor of Birmingham?

"Bull" Connor


Describe Bull Connor.

Connor had a “short fuse” with the blacks and lost a mayor election so he came up with a plan.


What did MLK do with the SCLC as he left Albany.

-Launched project “C” (Confrontation)


What was MLK's idea with project C?

- Did their research on the time it would take for people to walk down to three stores and fill up the counters
- Focused on a more specific goal


When did these protests take place?

Around Eastertime


When MLK arrived in Birmingham, what did he do?

King didn’t know what to do, so he led a demonstration, which was against the the
Supreme Court wanted


After MLK's Birmingham demonstration, what happened to him and how did he feel about it?

He wanted to get arrested, and he did


In Jail in Birmingham, what did MLK do?

He wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in which he quoted some historical figures and applied those quotes to problems that must be fixed when he comes out of jail. He urges his nonviolence policy and is hoping for a bright future.


How does King get released from jail in Birmingham?

He accepts release on bond


After MLK is released from Birmingham, what is his new plan?

getting high school children involved


Why did King want to get children involved im Birmingham?

- Parents had bills to pay
- King didn’t want people’s to not be totally focused on the the demonstrations


What happens to the Birmingham kids when they first start protesting?

So many kids started getting arrested that they needed school buses to arrest them instead of paddywagons.


How did the black kids respond to the Birmingham arrests?

A march started of thousands of students not in school


How did Bull Connor respond to this march by the black kids?

- Bull Connor brought city dogs to intimidate them
- Next he brought in firemen to spray people with firetruck hoses (1,000 psi - takes bark of trees) and sprays the kids


What were the effects of the Birmingham arrests from the kids riot?

- The jails were filled, mostly with kids
- After negotiations were reached to stop the riots the Ku Klux Klan made a statement
- A bomb was exploded at MLK's home, but he was not home


Who and when was the Civil Rights Act Proposed?

Kennedy proposed this to Congress after riots in Birmingham.


What did the Civil Rights Act lead to?

Movement plans for a major march to Washington D.C.


What was the predction of how many people would show up, but really how many people did show up at the Washington march?

- Movement worried that not enough people will show up to the march.
- More than 200,000 people show up to march.


What was the 13th Amendment?

Abolishment of Slavery


What was the 14th Amendment?

granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States"


What was the 15th Amendment?

voting rights for African Americans


What were Jim Crow Laws?

after the passage of 15th Amendment local and state legislatures passed laws segregating blacks from whites. People can treat African Americans to stop them from voting, things like poll taxes and literacy tests.


What were poll taxes?

had to pay a tax to vote (it was discriminatory because African Americans couldn’t afford the tax, meaning they couldn’t vote, and making voting still a white man’s game.


What were literacy tests?

test you need to take to see if you are literate so they can vote, but it was fixed. African Americans couldn’t pass because they couldn’t afford school and wouldn’t pass the test to vote.


What was Plessy v. Ferguson?

(1896) - set the idea of separate but equal in the judicial system. (separate schools,buses, bathrooms are okay,but they have to be equal.


What were grandfather clauses?

exempts certain people from poll taxes and literacy taxes. Gives poor, illiterate whites the power to vote if their grandfathers vote.


What was the 101st Airborne Division?

A light infantry unit that escorted the Little Rock 9 into school.


How many kids were in Brimingham jail after a week?

over 7000


How is external pressure created with the Birmingham kids' situation?

-This story was printed all over the world. This caused external pressure (Soviet Communists made fun of your hose situation).
-Hollywood is involved, creating more pressure.


After 10 days, what happened to all the Birmingham jails?

They were full. There were 12K males and 600 females.


When did MLK give his I Have a Dream Speech?

March on Washington


What did the I Have a Dream Speech consist of?

MLK's vision of what blacks could have-his version of rallying for freedom for all blacks.