Flashcards in WWII Homefront Quiz Deck (86):
Name ten things needed when a country goes to war.
-food and water
How did the US meet the requirement of a supply of soldiers in WWII?
They were acquired through drafting and volunteers.
How were food and water handled by the US during the war?
There were canteens for water and the food meals were canned.
What were some of the forms of shelter used in WWII by the US?
barracks and tents
What healthcare resources needed to be filled for the war?
nurses, first aid medics, medicine
What forms of transportation were used in the war by the US?
planes, ships, portable weapons
What was the US's debt after WWII?
What happened to the US national debt money after time passed?
Most of the money was paid back off by the 1950s. The money from WWII is not part of today's big debt.
What kind of man was Roosevelt?
A committee man
What are characteristics of Roosevelt as a committee men?
-He likes to say we should form a committee because this isn't our first big issue,
-We already had the Depression, and made the new Deal, created all the agencies in committees.
-Turns the war issue into small, solvable, manageable problems.
-Makes agencies to meet needs and solve some problems
Who was head of Office of War Mobilization?
What was the objective of the Office of War mobilization?
to help businesses transition from making consumer goods to war goods.
What is the local connection to the Office of War mobilization?
Bethlehem Steel was making steel girders to make high risers in NYC in 1920s and 1930s. Once war got on, they used steel to make ships, tanks and thin plate metal in big sheets for these wartime goods.
How did the economic manufacturing procedures change after the Office of War mobilization was created?
This requires a change of how they go about things-fixing assembly lines, retooling equipment.
Even with the changes of manufacturing industrial goods to wartime goods, what was still the main goal of the workers?
What was the cost-plus system?
government would pay cost that you would need to transition your business because they could lose money doing that for war, the system also had a percentage they gave extra for a profit to reward businesses for making transitions, takes any negative incentive away for a business to change.
What was the issue of the cost-plus system?
that the government doesn't do anything after the war, and doesn't help them transition back after the war to normal manufacturing.
Why was the Office of Civilian Defense created?
-civilian defense was a big worry
-What would you do to prepare for a civilian attack?
What was created with the Office of Civilian Defense?
-anti-aircraft guns were set up
-bomb shelters for people to go
-sirens, blackout drills
-they blacked out everything so the bombers couldn't find any landmarks
What were other methods of safety used to protect US civilians by the government?
-need people to be in charge of cleaning and clearing to get troops into the area
-schools would turn into houses and hospitals if homes and hospitals were bombed
-beaches have towers near the cities, so they can see if bombers/planes are coming
Why did they have towers near the east coast beaches near big cities?
So they can see if bombers/planes are coming because it would be good spots for Germans to bomb Washington, Philly, and Baltimore.
What precautions were used to protect US civilians near the Pacific coast?
A gun was out at San Diego to protect that area, on Diamond Head crater there would be guns up top to get the Japanese if they were coming through Waikiki beach into Pearl Harbor
What was the goal of the office of war?
to maintain a certain level of war fever, war demands sacrifice, keep a good level of interest into going to war.
What was war propaganda in US terms?
What was the Selective Service Act?
A military draft was put in place to recruit more soldiers. Some soliders were drafted, some were volunteers.
What law was passed to help pay for the US war?
When was the Revenue Act?
What did the Revenue Act ask financially from the people?
established a 5% flat tax. 40% taxes are for war money, 60% were from war bond campaigns
How did war bonds work?
buying $25 for $20, and you get your $25 back after the war, make a bit interest, act of patriotism, like a bare bond.
How were people of all ages involved in raising money for wartime goods?
Kids could buy sticker books back then for a dime, and getting all the stamps gave you $25 in war bonds after buying all the stickers for $18, this contributed to the war
What were used to limit supplies consumed by civilians in the US?
What were the rules for Ration Stamps?
-each family gets ration book based on # of family members, stamps are inside
-In order to buy something, they must redeem stamps and pay for it
What kind of economy was created with the Ration Stamps?
a false economy from a real economy. It was a black market economy
Why were the Ration Stamps created?
-limits inflation, doesn't matter how much money you have, no stamps, no goods
-important for government to keep inflation down, so war costs doesn't go up
What agency created the Ration Stamps?
Office of Price and Administration
What committee was in charge of managing how goods were produced and what was their principle to their methods?
The War Productions Board, Taylorism
Who created Taylorism and how did he implement it?
Fredrick Taylor was president of Bethlehem steel, point is there is only the one best way to do a job, time on task studies, train workers to do it that way, and boosts productions.
How did Taylorism improve the production of wartime goods?
-At start of war, massive vessels and battleships were built in 105 days (3.5 months), very fast for battleship, by ending of Taylorism they built one in 14 days
-This worried Hitler how fast they worked.
-By end of war, we produced 274 planes a year, and we still scaled back production. This was a big reason we won because we were too quick with production.
What were Dollar a year men?
-Business executives, VPs, engineers, they would leave their position and work for government
-They get shown how to produce war goods, government only pays them $1 per year, but their home company continues to pay them for the remainder of the salary
-It was to say they were helping the war for great patriotism, to give the person enough money for after war, and to get a government contract to build the goods.
Why was the National War Relations Board created?
to limit the amount of strikes happening
What law was passed by the National War Relations Board?
When was the Smith-Connelly Act passed?
What was the Smith-Connelly Act?
-Limited workers’ abilities to go on strike, 60 day warning before they could go out. Management can hire new people or stockpile
-They try to remind them of inflation going up with war goods and that they must comply with the war events and that war is top priority right now.
What is a Wildcat Strike?
A spontaneous strike not endorsed by the Union in which the workers just walk out without the 60 days warning.
When do Wildcat Strikes mostly occur?
Mostly on paydays, so they can see their final check and use it as proof, time of day is either break time or lunch time, they can socialize or complain to the people and state their problem, then they walk out.
How does government respond to these Wildcat strikes, coming out of nowhere?
They talk to management, and especially the workers that complain the most, watch mob dynamic and look for the leader of the revolt, and government shuts him down and gets them back on the job.
What were some alternatives Roosevelt proposed to get more people in the work force?
-working closer to home
-technology rather than men
What was an issue with proposing that the elderly should work?
It depended on their needs and handicaps. However, Roosevelt is handicapped, so he thinks this will work.
How did Roosevelt view his idea of having women and blacks work?
-He told whites to get over the prejudice because they needed the work due to the war occurring, as war is top priority.
-He wonders if whites can put up with them and work with them and start gaining respect for each other. This could open some opportunities for some people.
What could be an advantage of the working close to home idea?
-Depending on where your home is, you can conserve oil, fuel for war goods
-people could be more willing to stay late and come in early,
-people would feel good working too
What was the controversy surrounding the idea of having a worker draft?
Good to do to get more people, but random people could do random jobs and there could be no motivation, so they wouldn't be skilled, could also lose people from military draft.
What was an issue with having workers work overseas?
transportation could be an issue, depends on what countries you are in and if they could be subject to attack, transportation could get more expensive, what is the quality control, production skills.
What was the Bracero program?
rather than sending work out, we needed help, so we brought Mexicans into the US to work as migrant farm workers.
Where were the Mexican workers working in the US?
Mostly California and Arizona to start, but after moving around, they eventually spread to the entire country.
How were Mexicans treated after the war was over and their jobs were done?
They were done and left because it was officially not needed, no guarantees they will stay in US.
How was the treatment of Mexicans in the Bracero Program viewed by the Mexicans?
It was worker prostitution, as we used them and worked them, and were finished with them after the war.
Why did the Mexicans need to leave after the war?
The current soldiers out of the country needed jobs after the war, there were 14 million people that had no job after done fighting.
Why did the Mexicans not want to leave the US after the war was over?
They were paid better than they would be if they Stayed in Mexico.
What were some ways that WWII brought prosperity?
-technology could advance
-it fully ends depression by increasing income by 70%, wages go up 27%, GNP doubles.
-created a sense of unity as everyone contributed of all ages and played a role in this war.
-advances equality for minorities, California population will go up 43% by end of war, people want jobs in war industry
What were some sacrifices that had to be made during the war?
What were Latch Key kids and what was the controversy about them?
They were kids with a dad in the military, a mom working full-time, and home alone. Because many kids were home alone, they got into trouble, as juvenile delinquency rates went up. Some of these kids had the right of freedom, but they abused it.
Where were there black riots during the war?
Detroit, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Harlem.
What was the zoot suit riot?
It takes place in Los Angeles in 1943 between Hispanic kids that started making more money and coming into contact with white people, and the whites hated how they dressed with the zoot suiters.
What is internment?
put the Japanese into concentration camps, like prisons, no slave labor camps, but could work for small money, like confinement.
Why did the US have the Japanese internment?
-Japan wanted to have a bigger plan in Pacific
-fears of espionage
-Executive order #9066
-War Powers of the President and Congress
Describe Japan's attacks after Pearl Harbor.
Japan had a bigger plan and had attacked Guam, SE Asia, Philippines, and Alaska
What was the fear Japan may do after all these attacks?
They may come back at Hawaii or invade mainland US.
Why could we sense there were spies in the mainland US before the internment?
We knew there were spies in Hawaii, and there now may be spies in mainland US and sabotage, worried if they invaded they would cut lines of communication, and start controlling some of the mainland.
Why was loyalty questions a reason the US put Japan in internment camps?
Many are first/second generation immigrants, questioning where do loyalties lie, and after war starts, some immigrants want to go back to Japan, which told the US who they were.
Why were racism complaints a reason for the internment camps?
the immigration quota started it
-85% of Japanese population will be interned at some point
-Only about 1% of Germans and Italians that are interned, much less of them.
-They take this as racism again.
How was the War Powers of the President and Congress involved with the internment?
he doesn't need a law for these immigration, once Congress declares war, President can put restrictions on what you can do, such as internment camps
What were the rules for Japanese to follow on their way to the internment camps?
-Japanese families get one bag, bring what you can carry, whatever gets left behind is sold
-not told where they are going because of spies, can't tell if it is hot or cold,
-don't know how long they will be gone because they don't know how long the war will last.
-you get rounded up put in trucks, sent to the middle of nowhere so they cant escape easily,
What were the settings of the internment camps?
very remote, isolated, away from coast, desert area of California, near Death Valley into Utah, New Mexico, even into Midwest,
What were the rules during the internment?
-Documents to be checked
-you were guarded
-forced to share with other families you don’t know for a while
What did the internment camps look like?
They looked like concentration camps, had barracks on main streets, much desolation, it looked bad, but they weren't as controlled very badly.
What kind of work was done at the internment camps?
Mostly farming work, schools were there for kids
How many people died at the internment camps?
8 people died, 3 were kids at the camp.
What was the rule for Japanese Americans not in the camps, but on the streets?
They had a curfew, to be inside by sundown.
How did the Japanese take the curfew rule?
They took it as racist, as white Americans could stay out all night.
What court cases took place of Japanese protesting?
Hirabayashi v. United States
Korematsu v. United States
What were the dates of the court cases?
What was the ruling of Hirabayashi v. United States?
US won, being inside by curfew was not a terrible sacrifice as they felt sacrifices and hardships were part of war.
What was the argument of the Korematsu v. United States case?
Can government kill you? Yes, but they need a warrant, trial, jury, day in court, appeals process, if they follow procedural steps and feel a threat, they can execute someone, they can take freedom by putting someone in jail. The Japanese wanted to have a trial, instead the US directly put them in jail. The argument was it is war, sacrifices and hardships must be faced, even though Japan felt it was major racial profiling.
What is the 5th Amendment?
Right to due process
How was the US warned by Japan about their actions in the internment?
they warned us that it is justified to do this to Japan to round up people for wars to come.