Flashcards in I_O Psychology 1 Deck (36):
What are the three areas on which job analysis focuses?
Job-oriented factors, worker-oriented factors, or a combination of the two.
What is included in job-oriented factors?
Task requirements of a job (e.g., lifting repairing, installing).
What is included in worker-oriented factors?
Knowledge, skill, ability, and personal characteristics required of a job (high school education, manual dexterity, 20/20 vision).
What are some methods of job analysis?
Interviews, questionnaires, direct observation, worker diaries.
What is performance evaluation?
Evaluation of an employee's job performance. Aka performance appraisal or merit rating.
What are criterion measures in performance evaluation?
Measures used to evaluate employee job performance.
What are the two types of criterion measures in performance evaluation?
Objective and subjective.
What are objective criterion measures in performance evaluation?
Direct, quantitative measures, such as # units sold, percentage of cases won, salary, work days missed. Limited by situational factors and may not be useful for evaluating complex jobs.
What are subjective criterion measures in performance evaluation?
Those that rely on a rater, e.g., for assessment of motivation, supervision skills, problem solving skills, effectiveness with others. Subject to rater's skills and bias.
What are "360-degree" performance measures?
Those that incorporate ratings from multiple raters, including peers, subordinates, and customers, as well as supervisors.
Name five subjective rating techniques.
- personnel comparison systems
- critical incidents
- behaviorally anchored rating scales
- behavioral observation scales
- force choice checklists
What are personnel comparison systems (PCS) in performance evaluation?
Comparing an employee to other employees. Can be rank-order, paired, or forced-distribution. Rank-order is self-explanatory. Paired compares one employee to all others. Forced-distribution places each employee in a predetermined distribution, e.g., top 10%, next 25%, middle 30%, etc.
What is an advantage of personnel comparison systems?
They can reduce some types of rater bias, e.g., central tendency, leniency, and strictness.
What are critical incidents approaches to performance evaluation?
Critical incidents (CIs) are descriptions of specific job behaviors associated with very good or very poor performance. Generally identified by supervisors observing employees CIs can behaviorally anchor Likert-type scales.
What are behaviorally anchored rating scales in performance evaluation?
Rating scales divided into several dimensions of job performance with critical incidents tied to individual points on a Likert-type scale, e.g., 7 "is very supportive if patient is stressed"; 1 "is often late to begin sessions with patients"; etc.
What are some pros and cons of behaviorally anchored rating scales?
Because they are usually constructed collaboratively among supervisors and employees, they tend to produce useful feedback for ratees and reduce bias among raters. However, they are also time-consuming to construct and tend to be specific to the job and company for which they are developed.
What are behavioral-observation scales in performance evaluation?
Similar to behaviorally anchored scales, but employees are rated on frequency of critical incident performance.
What are forced-choice checklists in performance evaluation?
Items in these checklists are grouped so that their social desirability and ability to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance are similar. Designed to reduce rater bias.
Name five types of performance evaluation rater bias.
Halo effect, central tendency, leniency, strictness, contrast effect.
What is the halo effect?
Tendency to judge all aspects of an individual's behavior based on a single characteristic, whether positive or negative.
What are the central tendency, leniency, and strictness biases?
Central tendency: giving average ratings to all ratees. Leniency: giving positive ratings to all ratees. Strictness: giving negative ratings to all ratees.
What is the contrast effect?
Tendency to rate persons in comparison to other ratees, e.g., after giving several poor ratings, giving the next ratee inaccurately high ratings.
What is frame-of-reference training in performance evaluation?
Rater training that focuses on recognizing the multidimensional nature of job performance and conceptual consistency among raters.
What is the acronym "KSAPs" refer to?
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Personal characteristics required for a given job.
Name 9 common approaches to personnel selection.
- general mental ability tests (aka, cognitive ability, general intelligence)
- job knowledge tests
- work samples
- biographical information (aka, biodata)
- assessment centers
- personality tests
- interest tests
- integrity tests
Discuss key factors in using general mental ability tests in employee selection.
Probably most valid predictors of job performance across jobs and settings, increasing as complexity increases. Validity coefficients range from .51 predicting performance ratings to .75 predicting work sample performance.
Discuss key factors in using job knowledge tests in employee selection.
Has good validity (~.62 in one meta-analysis); increases with job complexity and job:test similarity.
Discuss key factors in using work samples in employee selection.
Good predictors of job performance, r ~ .33. Motor skills samples may be more valid than verbal skill samples. Less likely than other methods to unfairly discriminate. Can be part of a realistic job preview.
Discuss key factors in using interviews in employee selection.
Most commonly used technique, but only moderately predictive, .37. Validity depends upon content, criterion, interview method, with structured board interviews using consensus ratings being highest.
Discuss key factors in using biographical information in employee selection.
Can be highly predictive of job performance if data chosen have been empirically validated for a particular job, comparable to cognitive ability. Can also be useful for predicting turnover, with equal validity across race/ethnicity. Items can lack face validity.
Discuss key factors in using assessment centers in employee selection.
Usually conducted in groups, include multiple methods of assessment, and examinees are rated on all dimensions. Typically high validity, but subject to criterion contamination, and can be expensive to develop and administer.
What is criterion contamination?
A rater's knowledge of an examinee's performance on a selection instrument affects rater's evaluation of examinee on the job.
Discuss key factors in using personality tests in employee selection.
Big-Five tests indicate that conscientiousness is a good predictor of general job and training performance. Some traits are more predictive of specific jobs.
Compare the advantages of personality testing vs. cognitive testing in job performance.
Personality testing may be more valid in predicting contextual performance, e.g., behaviors that contribute to working environment, while cognitive testing may be more predictive of task performance.
Discuss key factors in using interest tests in employee selection.
Low validity for job success, but useful in predicting job satisfaction, persistence, and choice.