Flashcards in Ethics 4 Deck (37):
What are the 11 standards under section 9, Assessment?
1. Bases for Assessments
2. Use of Assessments
3. Informed Consent in Assessments
4. Release of Test data
5. Test Construction
6. Interpreting Assessment Results
7. Assessment by Unqualified Persons
8. Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results
9. Test Scoring and Interpretation Services
10. Explaining Assessment Results
11. Maintaining Test Security
What are the 3 parts of standard 9.01 Bases for Assessments?
a) We base our findings on work sufficient to substantiate them.
b) Except as noted in 9.01c, we offer professional opinions only after examining those about whom we opine. In the event that such examinations are not possible, we clarify the likely impact of our limited information on our opinions and limit our conclusions and recommendations accordingly.
c) Examination may not be necessary for a given opinion (e.g., when reviewing records, consulting, or supervising). In such cases, we explain the sources on which our opinions are based.
What are the 3 parts of standard 9.02 Use of Assessments?
a) We conduct assessments for appropriate purposes and applications.
b) We use assessments whose reliability and validity have been established for those with whom we use them. When this has not yet been established, we explain relevant strengths and limitations.
c) We use assessments that are appropriate for the examinee linguistically and competence-wise, unless alternative language use is relevant.
What are the 3 parts of standard 9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments?
a) We obtain informed consent as in 3.10, except when:
1. testing is mandated by law or regulation
2. informed consent is implied by the routine of the organization (education, condition of employment, etc.)
3. the purpose of testing is evaulating decisional capacity.
b) When consent is not sought, we inform, in appropriate language, our clients/patients about the nature and purpose of testing.
c) When using an interpreter, we ensure confidentiality of test results and test security.
What are the 2 parts of standard 9.04 Release of Test Data?
a) Test data means client/patient responses, scores, and our notes. We may release test data to the client/patient if s/he requests we release it; we may refrain from doing so to protect the him/her from substantial harm from misuse or misrepresentation of their data or test.
b) Without a release, we provide test data only as required by law or court order.
NOTE: HIPAA bears on this in that patients have the right to their test results, including raw data. One way to resolve this conflict is to explain to the patient that raw data is potentially misleading and that a full and clear explanatory report would serve them better than raw data, unless s/he has another professional qualified to interpret the raw data. (If they insist, you will have to release the raw data, but include the explanatory report anyway.)
What is standard 9.05 Test Construction?
We use appropriate and current scientific procedures for test design and use. Developers provide test manuals, which includes normative population information, etc., as appropriate.
What is standard 9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results?
When interpreting results, we account for and indicate any examinee and examiner personal characteristics, as well as the purpose and limitations of the test, and situational and other difference that could affect the accuracy of our interpretations.
What is standard 9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons?
Except in supervised training, we do not promote assessment by unqualified persons.
What are the 2 parts of standard 9.08 Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results?
a) We don't base assessments or decisions on outdated tests or results.
b) We don't base assessments or decisions on obsolete or inappropriate tests.
What are the 3 parts of standard 9.09 Test Scoring and Interpretation Services?
a) Psychologists who offer scoring services to other professionals accurately describe those services.
b) We select services based on appropriate considerations, including their validity.
c) We retain responsibility for appropriate use and interpretation of assessments, whether we used a service or not.
What is standard 9.10 Explaining Assessment Results?
We explain our results unless the nature of the relationship precludes it (e.g., forensic evaluations, preemployment, etc.) and the withholding has been explained in advance.
What is standard 9.11 Maintaining Test Security?
We make reasonable efforts to maintain test integrity and security. Test materials do not include test data.
What is Forensic Psychology?
Acting as a psychological expert on explicitly psycholegal issues in direct assistance to adjudicative and correctional organizations.
What does "insanity" mean?
It is a legal, not psychological, term indicating an defendant's ability to distinguish between right and wrong at the time of their alleged crime.
What is an expert witness?
"Any person who, by virtue of his or her training or experience in a science, a trade, or an art, has information that is not likely to be known by the average juror."Expert witness may be asked to testify not only about facts but also, or instead, to offer opinions and/or conclusions.
At initial consultations or meetings, what 4 things should forensic psychologists should inform parties interested in contracting with them?
1. fee structure
2. potential conflicts of interest
3. areas of competence and its limits
4. bases of methods and procedures to be used and their qualifications to do so
Forensic psychologists do not work for contingency fees under what circumstances?
- services involve expert testimony
- the psychologist will be asked to make affirmations or representations relied upon by third parties
How do forensic psychologists handle informed consent when evaluations are not court ordered?
They provide full notification of the purposes, methods, and intended uses of the evaluation. If the client refuses to proceed, the psychologist refers the client back to his/her attorney for legal advice.
To what uses can a clinical forensic evaluation be put beyond those described in an informed consent?
None without explicit waiver from the client or her/his legal representative.
How does limited right to confidentiality affect the forensic psychologist's treatment of client information?
The psychologists makes every effort to guard confidentiality of all information not directly bearing on the legal case.
How do forensic psychologists approach public statements about particular legal proceedings in which they are involved.
1. They avoid making such statements.
2. Where they are strongly justified, statements represent the psychologists' role and/or evidence and do not advocate a position.
3. Proceedings are addressed in publications or other communications using only public record or properly consented to disclosures.
What are the 10 standards under section 10 Therapy?
1. Informed Consent to Therapy
2. Therapy Involving Couples or Families
3. Group Therapy
4. Providing Therapy to Those Served by Others
5. Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients
6. Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients
7. Therapy with Former Sexual Partners
8. Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients
9. Interruption of Therapy
10. Terminating Therapy
What are the 3 parts of standard 10.1 Informed Consent to Therapy?
a) We discuss IC, including Q&A, as early in the process as feasible.
b) When treatment involves new approaches, we inform clients/patients of its novelty, risks, and alternatives and remind clients/patients of their voluntary participation.
c) Clients/patients are informed when the therapist is in training and under supervision (vicarious liability).
What are the 2 parts of standard 10.2 Therapy Involving Couples or Families?
a) When providing services to multiple related people, we establish at the outset
1) who is the client and
2) what relationship each person has with the psychologist.
b) If conflicting roles are expected to or do arise for the psychologist, we clarify and modify, or withdraw from, those roles appropriately.
What is standard 10.3 Group Therapy?
In group settings, we describe roles and responsibilities of all parties and limits of confidentiality at the outset.
What is standard 10.4 Providing Therapy to Those Served by Others?
When considering whether to provide services to those already in treatment elsewhere, we consider carefully the treatment issues, the client/patient's welfare, and discuss with the client/patient and/or consult with appropriate others to avoid or minimize potential confusion or conflict and proceed with caution.
What is standard 10.5 Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients?
We don't do that.
What is standard 10.6 Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients?
We don't do that. We don't terminate therapy to circumvent it, either.
What is standard 10.7 Therapy with Former Sexual Partners?
We don't do that.
What are the 2 parts of 10.8 Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients?
a) We don't do that for at least two years after treatment ends.
b) Even after two years of no sexual contact, we bear the burden of demonstrating that there has been no exploitation in light of
1) the two years past,
2) the nature, duration, and intensity of the therapy,
3) circumstances of termination,
4) client/patient's personal history and
5) current mental status,
6) the likely impact on the client/patient, and
7) any sexually or romantically leading statements or actions made by the therapist during therapy.
What is standard 10.9 Interruption of Therapy?
From the initiation of treatment, we make reasonable efforts to provide for appropriate resolution of client/patient care when treatment ends.
What are the 3 parts of standard 10.10 Terminating Therapy?
a) We terminate when it is reasonably clear the client/patient no longer needs our services or is being harmed by them.
b) We may terminate when we are concerned for our own safety as a result of treatment of a client/patient.
c) We provide pretermination debriefing and referrals as appropriate.
What is vicarious liability?
A situation in which one person is responsible for acts or omissions of another person. This applies when a psychology trainee sees clients/patients under a psychologist's supervision.
What is the frequency of sexual attraction to and acting out with patients by psychologists?
- Men: 95% report feeling attraction, 9.4% report acting
- Women: 76% report feeling attraction, 2.5% report acting
- most sexual misconduct occurs with male psychologists and female patients, typically with middle-aged, burned out, depressed, sleep disturbed, alcohol/drug abusing men in unstable marriages pursuing women who are 10-15 years younger (Pope, et al., 1993)
What therapist and client characteristics are associated with increased risk of sexual exploitation?
Nothing consistent, although some evidence for therapist's experience as a patient is associated with higher risk.
What is the most frequent cause of complaints to the Ethics Committee?
Sexual misconduct accounts for about 33% of all complaints.