Flashcards in Developmental Psychology 5 Deck (34):
What is Patterson's et al. coercive family interaction model of aggression development?
Parents reinforce children's aggressive behavior by responding with attention or approval and model aggression with commands combined with inconsistent and harsh physical punishment.
Name two cognitive factors factors more likely to be reported by aggressive children.
a) the experience that it is easy to perform aggressive acts and difficult to inhibit aggressive impulses, b) a confidence that aggressive acts will produce positive outcomes.
What situational variables can mitigate the effects of watching violence on television?
Presence of an adult while watching, parental disapproval of aggression, parental encouragement of nonaggressive behavior, limitation of time spent watching violence on television.
What are the most effective interventions for aggression?
Finding alternative ways of resolving conflict, improving interpretation of others' statements and behaviors, empathy training, alternative means of emotional expression.
Is the cathartic approach (letting people vent aggression safely) an effective aggression intervention?
No, in fact it seems to make it worse.
What are current usage rates (2006 SAMHSA) among adolescents 12-17 for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana?
10.4% tried cigarettes, 16.6 >1 alcoholic drink (10.3% binge, 2.4% heavy), 6.7% marijuana in last month
What are the current usage rates (2006 SAMHSA) among young adults 18-25 for alcohol?
42.2% (15.6% heavy)
Describe common effects of divorce on parents.
About two years "diminished capacity to parent," inconsistency in discipline; mothers show less affection toward children, especially sons, fathers become more indulgent and permissive; non-custodial parents initially spend more time with children, which diminishes over time.
What are the effects of divorce on preschool children?
Around time of divorce, tendency to self-blame, regression, intense separation anxiety; ten years later, few memories of time of divorce.
What are the effects of divorce on older children.
Better capacity to understand reasons for divorce, but painful memories of it.
What are the effects of divorce on boys?
Short-term increase of non-compliance, demandingness, hostility; potential for long-term behavior issues.
What are the effects of divorce on girls?
Relatively internalized; potential for "sleeper effect," with preschool girls showing noncompliance and low self-esteem in adolescence, increased chance of marrying young, becoming pregnant prior to marriage, and selecting psychologically unstable partner.
How does which parent the child lives with effect children of divorced parents?
Unclear; some research indicates that living with same sex parent is best; some indicates that adolescents of either sex living with father is associated with depression, anxiety, poorer grades.
What are the effects of divorce on children's academic performance?
Can be substantially negative, more so for boys, and may be due to income changes ("low-income effect").
What is the "buffering effect" for children of divorced parents?
When a custodial mother has another adult in the house, this can reduce the negative consequences of divorce. An exception to this is step-parents.
What is the effect of step-parents on children of divorced parents?
Generally, step-parents tend to have high levels of authoritarian parenting, producing poorer behavioral results in children. In contrast, step-fathers may benefit male children prior to adolescence.
What are typical relationships between step-parents and children of divorce parents?
Children and stepfathers tend to be more distant, while children and stepmothers tend to be more abrasive. Stepfathers' relationships with stepsons may improve over time, but not with stepdaughters.
What does research indicate about parenting styles of homosexual couples?
No differences from heterosexual couples.
What are the effects of maternal employment on children?
For low- and middle-income families, positive, so long as being employed is consistent with family values. Postive effects may be more pronounced for daughters. Negative effects on boys appears only to occur if mother is working s development.
What are the effects of daycare on children?
High-quality daycare can boost sociability, independence, and adaptability; children may be less compliant with adults and more aggressive with other children. Low-quality daycare is associated with increased distractibility, lower task involvement.
What are the effects of Head Start programs?
IQ score gains made in Head Start are often not maintained, but Head Start children are less likely to be placed in special ed classes, repeat grades, or drop out of school, and have better attitudes and achievement scores.
What is the WAIS "classic aging pattern"?
Relative stability on measures of stored knowledge with relatively sharp decline on performance subtests.
What is the "terminal drop"?
A substantial drop in all facets of intelligence in the months before death.
How does optimal performance time of day change over the course of the lifespan?
Young children, morning tends to be optimal; starting age 12, this shifts later until young adults are best in evening; effect wraps around until older adults are best in the morning.
How does aging affect attention?
Sustained and selective attention are not related to age; divided attention decreases with age.
How does age affect the brain?
Neuron loss begins ~30yo, accelerating after ~60yo, effecting primarily the hippocampus, cortex, and locus cereleus. Reduced blood flow and neurotransmitters, increased plaques. Increased connections among remaining neurons. New neurons in hippocampus possible.
How does age affect short-term memory?
Primary memory stable; working memory declines, mostly due to loss of processing speed.
How does age affect long-term memory?
Episodic: remote memory stable; recent memory declines, apparently related to coding strategies. Semantic and procedural memory are less effected.
How does age affect prospective memory?
Time-based tasks requiring responses at regular intervals more effected than event-based tasks requiring response to future cue.
How does age affect explicit vs. implicit memory?
Losses in explicit memory are not reflected in implicit memory.
How does age affect metamemory?
Older adults tend to be less accurate than young adults, underestimating efficiency and over estimating ability.
Expertise in fundamental pragmatics of life permitting exceptional insight and judgment involving complex and uncertain matters of the human condition. (Baltes & Staudinger, 1993, no page #)
Apart from past sexual activity, what are the best predictors of sexual activity in older men and women?
Women, availability of a sexual partner (e.g., marital status); men, health status.