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Flashcards in I_O Psychology 4 Deck (40):

What are the three levels of organizational culture?

Behavior and observable artifacts, values, and underlying assumptions.


How does gender interact with attractiveness in employee suitability?

All else being equal, when men are judging suitability, less attractive females and more attractive males are seen as more suitable.


How does gender interact with management style?

Although generally styles do not differ markedly, some research suggests that women are more focused on interpersonal relationships and task accomplishment than men, and are more likely to adopt a participatory style. Men may be more likely to be autocratic or directive.


How does gender affect evaluation of management style?

A small effect is evident of women managers being evaluated less favorable, esp. if they use stereotypically male leadership styles. Men using stereotypically female styles are not evaluated less favorably.


Describe Jewell's work performance formula.

P = A x M, where P performance, A ability, and M motivation.


What are the three types of theories of motivation?

Need, cognitive, and reinforcement.


On what are need theories of motivation based?

People expend effort in order to fulfill needs.


What are Maslow's five basic needs?

Physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization.


What support is there for Maslow's hierarchy in the workplace?

Not much. May be related to job level, but little support for there being five needs or that they emerge in the predicted order.


What three needs did McClelland identify underlying motivation?

- achievement (strongly related to entrepreneurial success)
- power (related to managerial effectiveness)
- affiliation (conflict avoidance)


What are the factors in Herzberg's Two-Factor theory of motivation?

Hygiene (negatively related to dissatisfaction, unrelated to satisfaction), motivators (positively related to satisfaction but unrelated to dissatisfaction). Research does not support a sharp distinction, with both hygiene and motivators contributing to satisfaction and dissatisfaction.


What is job enrichment?

Application of Herzberg's two-factor theory, focusing on adding motivators to increase job satisfaction. Research indicates job enrichment is most effective with younger, well-educated workers high in need for achievement.


What are the five Job Characteristics in the job enrichment model of motivation?

- skill variety (more skills more meaning)
- task identity (job is all of work, rather than a portion of it)
- task significance (importance of job)
- autonomy (more is better)
- feedback (more is better)

Evidence supports this theory's relevance to motivation/satisfaction and absenteeism/turnover, but not work quality. Best for those motivated by personal growth.


On what assumption are the cognitive theories of motivation based?

Motivation is related to complex decision-making processes.


What is goal-setting theory?

Goals both motivate and direct behavior. Most important contributor to motivation is acceptance of and commitment to goals. Attainment is maximized when goals are specific and challenging but achievable, and when accompanied by frequent progress feedback. Overall supported empirically across genders, with some individual differences.


What is Management by Objective?

Specific and time-limited goal setting collaborated upon by managers and employees, followed by evaluation and new goals.


How do individual goals work in teams?

Individual goals produce poorer performance in context of interdependent teams. Individual goals on top of group goals don't seem to add to group effectiveness .


What is equity theory?

Asserts workers assess work-in : reward-out ratios and compare their own with others'. When an individual's ratio appears to be less favorable than another's, they are motivated to make it equitable.


Compare underpayment and overpayment in equity theory?

Underpayment (more work for less reward) motivates workers to decrease work quality or quantity, to re-evaluate their work as less valuable or their rewards more valuable, or to leave. Overpayment (less work for more reward) is the reverse, but affects work performance less than underpayment.


What are the three variables in expectancy theory?

- expectancy beliefs (efforts will produce success)
- instrumental beliefs (success will produce given outcomes)
- valence (desirability of outcomes)


On what are reinforcement theories of motivation based?

Reinforcement strengthens behavior, punishment reduces it, and behavior extinguishes without reinforcement.


Explain Deci's conclusions about extrinsic vs. intrinsic rewards.

Intrinsically rewarding behaviors, e.g., solving puzzles, that are then extrinsically reinforced are diminished. Deci argued that extrinsic reinforcement leads actors to believe they are acting in response to those reinforcers rather than intrinsic ones.


What is incentive theory?

Application of operant conditioning to the workplace.


What are some factors associated with job satisfaction?

Age, level of hierarchy, skill utilization, and majority race are positively correlated with job satisfaction. There is also evidence of a dispositional effect, with job satisfaction being stable within individuals across jobs and time.


What is the relationship of pay to job satisfaction.

Perception of fairness is important: pay to performance, and equability to others with the same job. Pay is easily confounded with other factors such as autonomy and challenge.


Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and various performance measures.

Moderately negatively related to absenteeism and turnover. Better predictor of job longevity than physical health. Positively correlated with mental health. Weakly positively related to performance (moderated by relationship of performance to pay).


What is organizational commitment?

An individual's identification with an organization. Greatest when job opens opportunities for growth and responsibility. Negatively correlated with absenteeism and turnover. May increase resistance to change.


What is engineering psychology?

Focuses on the fit between workers and their work procedures, environment, and equipment.


What is a person-machine system.

A system involving both persons and machines and requiring optimal performance from each relative to the other. For example, people are more flexible but less consistent; machines are less flexible but more consistent; people are good at detecting patterns; machines can sense data outside the range of human perception.


Name three alternatives to the 40-hour five-day work week.

Compressed work week, flextime, and shift work.


What is known about the effects of a compressed work week (CWW)?

Evidence of positive effects on performance, job and schedule satisfaction. Mixed results on absenteeism. No apparent effect on productivity, except in fatiguing jobs, where it has a negative effect.


What is known about the effects of flextime?

Evidence of positive effects on job and schedule satisfaction and absenteeism. Mixed results on performance.


What is known about the effects of shift work?

Lower productivity, higher errors and injury at night within workers. Rotating shifts are worst case. Younger workers more adaptable and there may be individual differences.


What does the current research say about Types A & B behavior?

Stress and its negative effects are more connected to specific behaviors or attitudes, e.g., anger and hostility, than global personality patterns.


What is reported to be the most stressful aspect of a psychotherapist's job?

Lack of therapeutic success.


What characterizes burnout?

Exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, impersonalized thinking (people as objects). Higher among women, single/divorced persons, people who deal with other people and who have little opportunity for advancement.


What percentage of accidents are accounted for by human error?



Is there an accident prone personality type?

Unclear. Some traits that correlate are pessimism, low trust, depressive temperament.


What two factors are necessary in workplace safety?

Positive attitude toward safety, knowledge of safety procedures.


What approaches to workplace safety have been shown to be effective?

Positive theme (as opposed to scare tactics); management's commitment to programs; incentives. Posters are not effective by themselves and are most effective when they are specific.