Flashcards in Neuropsychology 2 Deck (34):
Name two of the major anatomical structures of the midbrain.
Substantia nigra, reticular formation.
What brain structures comprise the extrapyramidal motor system?
Substantia nigra, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.
What are the primary functions of the extrapyramidal motor system?
Controlling initiation, smoothness, directedness, and termination of movement.
What motor disease is associated with degeneration of the neurons of the extrapyramidal motor system?
What brain structures comprise the reticular activating system?
Reticular formation, thalamus, some brain sensory areas.
What are the primary functions of the reticular activating system?
Maintaining waking state, general arousal, and focused attention; selective facilitation of reception by neural structures, e.g., waking at a baby's cry, but sleeping through a truck backfire.
Describe the overall structure of the reticular formation, part of the reticular activating system.
Diffuse network of neurons extending from spinal cord up through hindbrain and into midbrain.
What are some of the primary functions of the reticular formation, part of the reticular activating system?
Involved in sleep and arousal, pain and touch sensation, respiration, reflex control.
Name the five major anatomical structures of the forebrain.
Hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system, cerebral cortex.
Describe a primary means of control for the hypothalamus.
Pituitary gland is attached to hypothalamus, which thus is able to control autonomic and endocrine system functions.
What are some of the primary functions of the hypothalamus?
Regulation of temperature, fluid, metabolism, specific appetites. Control of motivated behaviors: eating, drinking, sex, aggression, maternal behavior. Translation of strong emotion, e.g., rage, fear, excitement, into physical responses, e.g., increased heart rate, shallow breathing.
What are some of the primary functions of the suprachiasmic nucleus of the hypothalamus?
Control of circadian rhythms through interpretation of day length based on retinal information; regulation of pineal gland's secretion of melatonin.
What are some of the primary functions of the thalamus?
A "central switching station" routing incoming sensory data to cortex (all senses but olfaction), data between cortical regions, and between cortex and subcortical regions. Involved in language, memory, motor activity. Relays cortical data initiating voluntary movement.
What brain structures comprise the basal ganglia?
Caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen. These are all closely interconnected and connected to the substantia nigra and cerebellum (collectively the extrapyramidal motor system).
What are some of the primary functions of the basal ganglia?
Code and relay data controlling voluntary movement, motoric expression of emotion, and sensorimotor learning.
What are some diseases and disorders associated with dysfunction of the basal ganglia?
Tourette's, Huntington's, Parkinson's, depression/mania, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, psychosis.
What brain structures comprise the limbic system?
Amygdala, septum, hippocampus.
What is the primary functions of the limbic system as a whole?
Mediation of emotional behavior.
What are some of the primary functions of the amygdala in the limbic system?
Integration and direction of emotional behavior, attaching emotional significance to sensory data, mediation of defensive/aggressive behavior.
What are some of the effects of dysfunction of the amygdala in the limbic system?
In humans, lack of emotional response.
(In monkeys, reduced fear and aggression, increased docility, diet alteration, loss of significance, hypersexuality.)
What are some of the primary functions of the septum in the limbic system?
Inhibition of emotion. Electrical stimulation of hypothalamus and regions near the septum appears to induce ecstasy in rats.
What are some of the primary functions of the hippocampus in the limbic system?
Transfer of data from short-term to long-term memory (memory consolidation).
What is the last part of the brain to stop growing?
Cerebral cortex. It undergoes greater structural change after birth than any other part of the CNS.
Name the three principal parts of the frontal lobes.
Motor cortex, premotor cortex (a.k.a., association motor cortex), and prefrontal cortex.
What is the pyramidal motor system?
The motor cortex and the tract of motor axons projecting from it to the brain stem and spinal cord. It is responsible for voluntary movement, esp. fine, intricate movement, and control of speed and strength of movement.
What is the motor cortex?
The portion of the frontal lobes immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It controls contralateral skeletal muscle activity.
What is the premotor cortex?
Portion of the frontal lobes anterior to the motor cortex. Contains Broca's area. Activation of the the premotor cortex is associated with action simulation, e.g., visualization and observation of action.
What is Broca's area?
Portion of the premotor cortex involved in speech production. Damage to it can result in expressive aphasia.
What is expressive aphasia?
A deficit in ability to produce spoken language. People with this type of aphasia have difficulty speaking and may be limited to a few words, mostly nouns and verbs, and are aware of the deficit.
What is the prefrontal cortex?
Portion of the frontal lobes anterior to the premotor cortex. Associated with emotion, memory, executive and complex cognitive function, and expression of personality.
How might damage to the prefrontal cortex affect an individual?
Disruption in self-regulation, abstract thinking, decision making, and planning. Deficits in self-awareness, initiative, and social control. Two common types of personality change: pseudodepression and pseudopsychopathy.
What is pseudodepression?
Characterized by apathy, lack of drive, minimal verbal output, and inability to plan or focus attention.
What is pseudopsychopathy?
Characterized by sexual disinhibition, coarse language, peculiar/sarcastic sense of humor, inappropriate social behavior, lack of empathy.