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Flashcards in Clinical Psychology 3 Deck (30):

Define hypnosis.

a state of relaxed wakefulness with a relative suspension of peripheral awareness


What are the three factors underlying hypnosis?

- absorption, being engrossed in a central experience
- dissociation, alteration of normal functions of consciousness and awareness
- suggestibility, disinhibition within the trance-like state


What are some of the shortcomings of hypnotherapy?

Although hypnotic memory retrieval may improve symptoms, memories are often distorted. Subjects may be reluctant to admit this distortion, even when confronted with clear evidence.


What are some of hypnotherapy's applications?

- dissociative disorders: facilitating differential diagnosis and triggering dissociative symptoms
- PTSD: gaining control over spontaneous flashbacks, accessing traumatic memories
- phobic disorders and GAD: phobics more hypnotizable (anxiety regulation?)
- self-control disorders: behavior change


When is hypnotherapy contraindicated?

- psychotic disorders
- suspicious patients
- obsessive-compulsive personality traits

- severely mood disordered patients can be difficult to hypnotize
- patient's ability to be hypnotized is predictive of treatment response
- hypnosis is most effective when goal is to increase patient's sense of control over her emotions and behavior


What are three commonly used types of biofeedback?

- electromyograph (EMG): measures muscle activity, used in treatment of tension headache and relaxation therapy; also applied to chronic pain, incontinence, urinary urgency and frequency
- thermal handwarming: measures skin temperature, used in treatment of migraines, Reynaud's, and fecal incontinence; as blood flow to extremities increases, that to the extracranial arteries decreases, relieving migraine
- electroencephalogram (EEG): measures brainwave activity, used in treatment of depression, ADHD, and epilepsy, aids in recovery from stroke and head injury; often used in combination with behavioral techniques


What is paradoxical intention?

A behavioral technique in which one intends to engage in the feared behavior or stimulus, e.g., an insomniac intends to stay awake. Its design is to defuse the anticipatory anxiety associated with the behavior in question. Also effective with elimination disorders, depression, procrastination, and other anxieties where anticipatory anxiety is a clear component.


What are some applications for CBT imagery techniques?

- imaginal exposure/analysis of phobic situations, e.g., imagining public speaking, then identifying automatic thoughts
- guides for self-control, e.g., associating image of stop sign with undesired behavior
- distraction, e.g., imagining a beach when confronted with drug of choice
- visualizing goals/outcomes, e.g., seeing oneself as strong and well


What is assumed to be the object of treatment in Motivational Interviewing?

ambivalence about change


What are the five basic principles for intervention in Motivational Interviewing?

- express empathy through reflective listening
- develop discrepancy between client's goals and current behavior
- avoid argumentation/confrontation
- roll with resistance
- support self-efficacy for change


Name some of the techniques of White's and Epston's Narrative Therapy

- re-authoring life stories
- excavating unique outcomes
- thickening the new plot
- linking new plot to past & future


Describe schema therapy.

An integrative approach focusing on early maladaptive schemas that drive maladaptive behaviors. It relies on "limited reparenting" to help clients see characterological problems as ego-dystonic, thereby supporting change. Useful in treating long-term issues such as chronic depression & anxiety, eating disorders, relationship issues, and substance abuse relapse.


What are the three phases of Moreno's psychodrama?

- warm-up: protagonist(s) (representing the theme) and auxiliary egos (significant others) are selected with help of the director (trained facilitator)
- action: problem is dramatized, allowing protagonist to explore new resolutions
- sharing: director leads a group discussion


What is Moreno's psychodrama?

A group role-playing approach to understanding behavior and experimenting with new ways to resolve issues. Useful in treatment of trauma, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, grief & loss, and multicultural issues. Typically used in conjunction with other therapies.


What is Morita therapy, or psychology of action?

An early 20th century Japanese intervention for anxiety and neurosis. Accepts emotions and pain as inevitable and focuses on constructive action rather than alleviation of discomfort.


What is Naikan therapy?

Clients ask themselves three questions:
- what have I received from?
- what have I given to?
- what troubles or difficulties have I caused to?
Emphasizes self-reflection and awareness in relationships. Often combined with Morita therapy.


According to Family Systems theory, what is the difference between open and closed systems?

- open: able to interact with and respond to the environment, restructuring and revitalizing the family system as appropriate
- closed: resistant to change because of rigid or impermeable boundaries, leading the family toward disorder and disorganization


List seven important properties of a system in Systems theory.

- wholeness
- non-summatiivty
- equifinality
- equipotentiality
- homeostasis
- negative feedback
- positive feedback


According to Systems theory, what is "wholeness?"

the interrelatedness of a system; change that affects one part, affects the whole


According to Systems theory, what is "non-summativity?"

the whole being greater than the sum of its parts


According to Systems theory, what is "equfinality?"

different causes leading to the same result, e.g., regardless of what they argue about, two family members' arguments always affect the family the same way; reflects the focus on process over content


According to Systems theory, what is "equipotentiality?"

a single cause leading to different results across different individuals, e.g., father-daughter incest leading later to either promiscuity or inhibition in the daughter


According to Systems theory, what is "homeostasis?"

the tendency for a system to return to status quo; determined by system's management of positive and negative feedback


According to Systems theory, what is "negative feedback?"

maintenance of homeostasis by discouraging deviations from it


According to Systems theory, what is "positive feedback?"

disruption of homeostasis requiring adaptations on the part of the system's members


What is the main idea and central concepts in Communication/Interaction therapy?

- all behavior is a form of communication
- double-bind communication
- metacommunication
- symmetrical communication
- complementary communication


According to Communication/Interaction therapy, what is "double-bind communication?"

contradictory messages in one communication, e.g., saying "I love you" while pushing someone away


According to Communication/Interaction therapy, what is "metacommunication?"

communication with two levels, report (content of what is said) and command (implicit qualification, enhancement or contradiction); a contradictory metacommunication is a double-bind


According to Communication/Interaction therapy, what is "symmetrical communication?"

when communicators are equal, tending to lead to competition and conflict as each vies for control


According to Communication/Interaction therapy, what is "complementary communication?"

when communicators are unequal, with one subordinate and the other dominant, e.g., parent and child or therapist and client; refers to reciprocity of asking and answering of questions