Flashcards in Clinical Psychology 1 Deck (50):
The id, ego, and superego represent the three parts of the psyche in what theory?
Freud's Structural Theory, or Classical Freudian Theory.
Describe the nature and function of the id.
- comprised of basic biological drives
* aggressive drive
- dominated by the pleasure principle
Describe the nature and function of the ego.
- part of the id modified by interaction with the external world
- source of ability to
* think critically
- seat of reason and judgment
- represents reality principle
- functions to suspend pleasure principle as environment requires
Describe the nature and function of the superego.
- evolves out of successful Oedipal stage resolution
- results from internalization of parents' restrictions and customs
- part of the ego acting as conscience
- seat of morality
According to early psychoanalytic theory, what purpose do defense mechanisms serve?
They are unconscious mechanisms that help one to avoid activating the anxiety caused by conscious awareness of an intrapsychic conflict (e.g., between id and superego, as mediated by the ego).
What is the most basic defense mechanism and why?
Repression: it underlies all the other defenses.
What is signal anxiety?
Anxiety acting as an indicator of an unconscious conflict.
What are primary and secondary process thinking?
- primary process: unconscious processes, governed by the id
- secondary process: conscious processes, governed by the ego
What is repetition compulsion?
The expression in the present of feelings from the past as a function of transference.
What are the four stages of psychoanalysis?
- confrontation, the therapist bringing an issue to the patient's attention
- clarification, attempts to understand the patient's motivations underlying the issue
- interpretation, the therapist's (often repeated) presentation of understanding of the patient's motivation, resulting in patient's insight into the issue and emotional catharsis
- working through, assimilation of insights into the patient's personality through multiple revisitations of issue/insight/catharsis
What is analytic psychology?
Jung's development of psychoanalysis, a.k.a. complex psychology.
What are the four main forms of archetypes?
According to Jung, what happens as the personal unconscious becomes more conscious?
The collective unconscious is revealed and one's psyche begins to self-regulate, resolving neuroses.
How did Jung understand the mid-point of the human life cycle?
Around age 40, people tend to move from the extroversion of youth to the introversion of adulthood.
What was Adler's basic postulate about children's experience and their response to it?
In a world controlled by adults, children experience themselves as inferior and develop inferiority complexes. This provides them impetus to grow, dominate, and be superior, which he called the "masculine protest."
What did Adler mean by "organ inferiority?"
The identification of an inferiority complex with a specific part of the body.
How does Adler explain neurosis, psychosis, and delinquency?
A child develops compensatory patterns of behavior to defend against feelings of inferiority. Some styles of life overcompensate and become self-destructive.
What is the goal of Adlerian psychotherapy?
To help a client replace a "mistaken style of life" with an adaptive one.
What were some of the technical contributions to psychotherapy made by Adler?
- exploration of life style determinants
* family atmosphere
* distorted beliefs and attitudes
* birth order
- role playing
- advice and encouragement
Who were the Neo-Freudians and what was their focus?
- Karen Horney
- Harry Stack Sullivan
- Eric Fromm
They minimized the role of instinctual drives and emphasized social and cultural determinants of personality.
What are some modern programs based on Adlerian therapy?
- STEP: Systematic Training for Effective Parenting
- STET: Systematic Training for Effective Teaching
Who was Karen Horney and what were some of her key contributions?
She was a Neo-Freudian. She postulated the idea of basic anxiety, a child's experience of helplessness and isolation in a hostile world, and three modes of response to it: movement toward others, movement against others, and movement away from others. Healthy people are facile with all three; neurosis comes from over-reliance on only one.
Who was Harry Stack Sullivan and what was one of his key contributions?
He was a Neo-Freudian. He recognized the role of cognitive experience in personality development, which he divided into three sequential modes (see related card).
What were Harry Stack Sullivan's three modes of cognitive experience?
1. prototaxic mode
- pre-linguistic (first few months of life)
- discrete, unconnected, momentary states
- may characterize experience of schizophrenics
2. parataxic mode
- private/autistic symbols
- belief in causal connections where there are none, but which serve developing self and are anxiolytic
3. syntaxic mode
- symbols with shared meaning and logical, sequential, consistent thinking
- underlies language acquisition in at end of first year of life
How did Harry Stack Sullivan explain neuroses?
Neurotic behavior is caused by parataxic distortions, which are when an individual deals with others as if they were significant persons from their early life. They result from arrest at the parataxic mode of development.
Who was Erich Fromm and what was one of his key contributions?
He was a Neo-Freudian and he emphasized the role of societal factors in personality development, specifically, how society inhibits individuals from their capacities for creativity, love, and productivity, which he believed was our true nature.
What are the five character styles Erich Fromme identified as responses to societal demands?
- productive (this is the only style that permits an individual to realize his/her true nature)
Who were the Ego-Analysts and what was their major emphasis?
- Anna Freud
- David Rappaport
- Heinz Hartmann
They emphasized the role of the ego in personality development. In treatment, they focused on current experiences, building more adaptive defenses, and opportunities for "re-parenting."
What were the two functions that the Ego-Analysts assigned to the ego?
- ego-defensive: those involved in resolution of conflict
- ego-autonomous: functions unrelated to conflict, e.g., learning, memory, speech, perception
What distinguishes Object Relations Theory and who were some of its proponents?
Mental representations (object introjects) of the self and others are developed by the ego, normally by the third year of life (Mahler's "psychological birth"). Proponents include:
- Melanie Klein
- Ronald Fairbairn
- Margaret Mahler
- Otto Kernberg
- Heinz Kohut
- Donald Winnicott
How does Object Relations Theory understand neuroses?
A the delay or skewing of the normal, age-appropriate object introject development due to environmental issues, such as having a disturbed parent.
What does it mean to have a "split" representation (object)?
Viewing another person as all good or all bad and thereby responding to that person in an immature (unbound, agressive, and/or irrational) manner. This is often associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.
What was Heinz Kohut best known for?
His object relations work with narcissism.
What is the grandiose self and how does it develop?
It arises as a protective consequence of a parent's inevitable failure to satisfy all of a child's needs. Normally, it is modified through maturation and normal interactions with parents. Consistently unempathic responses from parents can thwart this normal development.
What is the "third-force" in clinical psychology?
Humanistic approaches to psychotherapy. They contrast with psychodynamic and behaviorist approaches, which are deterministic, by emphasizing individuality and humans' inherent capacity for growth and change.
What is incongruence in Rogerian theory?
A conflict between one's self-concept and experience. It is the source of pathology.
What are Rogers' three facilitative conditions?
- accurate empathic understanding
- unconditional positive regard
- congruence/genuineness (on the part of the therapist)
What is the goal of Client-centered (Rogerian) Therapy?
Decreasing incongruence between the real self and the ideal self; realizing self-actualization.
What is Existential Therapy?
Based on the work of the existential philosophers, it presumes that personality arises as a result of the individual's struggle with her/his knowledge of death, isolation, meaninglessness, and responsibility.
What are the two types of anxiety in Existential Therapy?
- normal (existential) anxiety: proportional, constructive, and unrepressed
- neurotic anxiety: results from failure to face normal anxiety, loss of sense of free will, inability to take responsibility
What are the goals of Existential Therapy?
- eliminate neurotic anxiety (to the degree possible)
- develop tolerance of unavoidable existential anxiety
What are some techniques used in Existential Therapy?
- identifying instances of avoiding responsibility
- consideration of options and decision making
- relating grief reactions and sadness to existential angst
What is the design of the therapist-client relationship in Existential Therapy?
It is intended to be honest, open, egalitarian, authentic, and intimate.
What is Logotherapy?
Developed by Victor Frankl, it has three tenets:
- meaning of life: life has meaning, even under the most miserable circumstances
- will to meaning: our main motivation is to find meaning
- freedom of will: we are free to find meaning, even in the face of unchangeable suffering
What was Perls' theory of personality?
- consists of:
* self: source of self-actualization
* self-image: imposes external standards, hinders self-actualization- "contact" means interacting with others and one's environment without losing one's individuality
What is Gestalt Therapy?
Developed by Fritz Perls, it focuses on the present moment, e.g., exploring figure and ground, with the figure being that to which one is attending and ground being unattended to.
What are boundary disturbances in Gestalt Therapy?
Resistances to contact (authentic interaction with the environment) that defend against anxiety and prevent full experience of the present. Boundary disturbances are adaptive or pathological depending on the degree to which the individual is aware of them or not.
What are some types of boundary disturbance in Gestalt Therapy?
- introjection: uncritical absorption of information
- projection: attribution of one's own thoughts, etc., to others
- retroflection: doing to oneself what one wants to do to others
- deflection: avoidance through vagueness, being indirect, or overly polite
- confluence: loss of boundary between self & others (enmeshment, codependency)
- isolation: extreme confluence, loss of all understanding of the importance for others for the self
What determines pathology in Gestalt Therapy?
Awareness: more aware healthier; less aware more pathological. Awareness allows appropriate contact.