Flashcards in Developmental Psychology 3 Deck (39):
Name Ainsworth's four infant attachment patterns.
Secure, anxious/avoidant, anxious/resistant, disorganized/disoriented.
What characterizes secure infant attachment?
Exploration of environment with or without mother; distress when mother leaves and contact-seeking when she returns; friendly to stranger in mother's presence but prefer mother.
What characterizes the behavior of mothers of secure infants?
Emotional sensitivity and responsiveness.
What characterizes anxious/avoidant infant attachment?
Lack of interest in environment; little interest in mother when she leaves and when she returns; may or may not be wary of strangers.
What characterizes the behavior of mothers of anxious/avoidant infants?
Either impatient and unresponsive or overly responsive and involved.
What characterizes anxious/resistant infant attachment?
Anxious in mother's presence more so when she leaves, ambivalent when she returns; wary of strangers. (a.k.a. ambivalent)
What characterizes the behavior of mothers of anxious/resistant infants?
Inconsistency, ranging from indifference to enthusiasm.
What characterizes disorganized/disoriented infant attachment?
Inconsistent responses to mother, alternating between avoidance and proximity-seeking; overall dazed, confused, apprehensive.
What characterizes the behavior of mothers of disorganized/disoriented infants.
Maltreatment of child.
Name the four patterns of adult attachment.
Secure/autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved.
What characterizes secure adult attachment?
Valuing relationships, able to integrate both positive and negative aspects of childhood experiences.
What characterizes dismissing adult attachment?
Devaluing relationships, guarded and defensive about childhood, idealize parents but cannot give concrete examples.
What characterizes preoccupied adult attachment?
Enmeshed relationships, incoherent about childhood, anger and resignation about parents.
What characterizes unresolved adult attachment?
Negative and dysfunctional relationships, frightened by memories of trauma, may dissociate as coping mechanism. (Think DID or BPD.)
Describe the female "enabling" style of peer relationship.
Increases intimacy and equality; characterized by agreement, suggestion, support; emphasizes emotion and intimacy.
Describe the male "restrictive" style of peer relationship.
Interferes with continuing interaction; characterized by bragging, contradiction, interruption; emphasizes activity, shared interests.
What characteristics are associated with popularity in children?
Skill at initiating and maintaining positive peer relationships; tendency toward being outgoing, supportive, communicative, cooperative, and nonpunitive.
What characteristics are associated with non-popular (rejected) children?
More aggression, disruptiveness, other negative behaviors compared to average children.
Compare the impact of being neglected vs. rejected status in children.
Rejection has a much stronger and more long lived effect, associated with aggression, feelings of loneliness; more stable over time and settings.
When are teens most likely to be conforming to peers?
Compare peer and parental influence on adolescent behavior.
Peers are more likely to influence attitudes and behaviors related to status in the peer group; parents have a greater effect on adolescent's life decisions and values.
Describe Piaget's heteronomous morality stage.
Children 4-7; absolute rules, imminent justice; actions based on consequences. A function of preoperational egocentrism and parental authority.
Describe Piaget's autonomous morality stage.
Children over age 8; rules as agreement; actions based on intention. A function of decline in egocentrism, increased social interaction, release from parental authority.
Where was Piaget wrong about children's lying?
He thought intentional lying did not start until age 7, but research has shown it beginning as early as 3 or 4.
Name Kohlberg's three stages of moral development.
Preconventional, conventional, post-conventional.
What are the two substages of Kohlberg's preconventional stage of moral development?
1: punishment and obedience; 2: instrumental hedonistic (satisfying own needs)
What are the two substages of Kohlberg's conventional stage of moral development?
3: social relations (approval of others); 4: authority and social order maintenance (obeying rules)
What are the two substages of Kohlberg's post-conventional stage of moral development?
5: social contract with individual rights (uphold laws that can be changed); 6: universal ethics (transcendence of legal standards)
What ages are associated with Kohlberg's moral development stages?
Conventional generally begins ages 10-13. Not all adults reach post-conventional; in those that do, it can begin in mid-adolescence.
What are the key assumptions of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
a) development occurs in an invariable sequence [even if not all people complete it]; b) moral development is a consequence of cognitive development; c) each stage represents an organized whole
What is the relationship between Kohlberg's theory of moral development and behavior?
Correlation is low, except at more advanced stages, where it increases.
What is the relationship between Kohlberg's theory of moral development and gender?
None that can be demonstrated; research indicates males and females progress through the stages similarly.
What is the relationship between fearful/lessness in children and parenting style in predicting conscientiousness?
To produce conscientiousness, fearful children are best disciplined gently, de-emphasizing power and capitalizing on a child's internal discomfort, while fearless children are best disciplined with positive motivation inherent in a secure attachment.
By what age do most children develop a gender identity?
Name four theories of gender identity development.
Kagan's social learning, Bem's gender schema, Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental, Freud's psychodynamic.
What is Kagan's social learning theory of gender identity development?
Gender identity is developed through rewards and punishments, modeling, and imitation.
What is Bem's gender schema theory of gender identity development?
Schemata develop in a sociocultural context; these in turn influence behavior and eventually identity.
What are the three stages of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of gender identity development?
Gender identity (recognition, by age 3), gender stability (realization that girls become women/boys men, follows gender identity), gender constancy (understanding that gender does not change).