Flashcards in Developmental Psychology 1 Deck (37):
What is genotype?
Characteristics determined by genetic code.
What is phenotype?
Observable and measurable characteristics. Can be physiological and psychological.
What is range of reaction?
The boundaries (set by genes) of possible phenotypic outcomes. For example, an optimal environment will not raise intelligence above the maximum set by genes.
What is canalization?
Relative resistance, developmentally, to environmental forces. Sensorimotor development is highly canalized; intelligence, less so.
What are secular trends?
Long-term patterns of environmentally-based change across birth cohorts, e.g., increased height and decreased age of menarche over the last 150 years due to improvement in nutrition and medical care.
What is polygenic?
Characteristics that are determined by multiple genes.
What is a homologous chromosome pair?
A pair of chromosomes that are duplicates of each other. Only the sex chromosomes of the male (XY) are not homologous.
What is phenylketonuria?
Inability to digest the amino acid phenylalanine, which can cause severe mental retardation. It occurs when a single dominant gene is present.
What is Down's Syndrome?
Mental retardation and physical features due to having an extra 21st chromosome (aka trisomy 21).
What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
A male having an extra X chromosome. They are typically socially male but do not completely develop secondary sex characteristics and are often sterile.
What is Turner's Syndrome?
A female missing all or part of the second X chromosome. They do not develop secondary sex characteristics, are sterile and tend to be short, with stubby fingers and a webbed neck.
What is fragile X syndrome?
Moderate to severe mental retardation, facial deformities, and rapid staccato speech due to a weak site on the X chromosome. Occurs in males and females, but is more evident in males (lacking compensation from the other X).
What is a teratogen?
Any environmental agent acting on the zygote, embryo, or fetus to produce abnormalities.
What are the three periods of prenatal development?
Germinal, conception to implatation, 8-10 days; embyronic, 2nd to 8th week; fetal, 9th week to birth.
What are the range of effects of teratogens during the germinal period?
Death of a few cells to death of the organism.
What are the range of effects of teratogens during the embryonic period?
Greatest susceptibility of organs, with different systems become most vulnerable at different times.
What are the range of effects of teratogens during the fetal period?
Less severe susceptibility of organs, but external genitalia and brain remain vulnerable. Prolonged exposure can retard growth and intelligence.
What are the most common teratogens?
Alcohol, illegal drugs, prescription drugs, smoking, maternal disease.
What are fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects?
FAS typically includes growth and mental retardation (IQs ~65-70), irritability, hyperactivity. FAE indicates some effects of alcohol on the child, but not full FAS. 1 in 100 live births show FAS/FAE.
What non-teratogenic maternal conditions may affect development?
Prenatal malnutrition, emotional stress, maternal age.
What pregnancy or delivery complications may affect development?
Prematurity (<10th percentile), fetal distress (including anoxia).
Name four infant reflexes.
Babinski, Moro/startle, stepping, and palmar grasp. These disappear after the first six months.
What is the Babinski reflex?
When sole of foot is stroked, big toe extends and small to spreads.
What is the Moro/startle reflex?
When infant's head drops slightly or after a sudden loud sound, legs extend, back arches, and arms are thrown out (as if for support).
Describe early vision development.
Born with poor (20/600) visual acuity, but prefer facial to non-facial forms within a few days of birth; can discriminate mother's from strangers faces by one month; color vision by two to three months; depth perception and near-adult acuity by six months.
Describe early auditory development.
Able to hear in utero (last few months), near adult sensitivity at birth. Prefer human voices to other sounds, recognize mother, and distinguish "a" from "i" within days; auditory localizing (turning head toward sound) within days, but this disappears at two to four months, reemerging at 12 months.
Describe early gustatory development.
Able to distinguish tastes at birth, with a preference for sweet.
Describe early olfactory development.
Respond to unpleasant odors within first few days; discriminate odors by two to seven days.
Describe early and childhood brain development.
Most neurons present at birth; development entails growth of new dendrites and myelinization, with primary motor cortex myelinizing in the first month, primary sensory next. Most myelinization is complete by end of second year, the balance by early adolescence. Brain is 60% of adult weight by end of first year.
What is the effect of early motor skill training, e.g., practicing walking?
Practiced motor skill may develop early and interest in complex skills (e.g., bike riding) may be increased.
Name six family environment-based psychopathology risk factors.
- low SES
- overcrowding/large family
- severe marital discord
- parental criminality
- maternal psychopathology
- placement of child outside home
Risk increases with number of factors: 2% for one to 21% for four or more.
What are some protective factors for children at risk for psychopathology?
Reduction of stressors following birth, easy temperament, and stable parental support.
Name the four system levels (+1) in Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of development.
Microsystem (immediate setting), mesosystem (interconnections between components of microsystem), exosystem (aspects of environment affecting but not contacted by child), macrosystem (cultural context). The "+1" is chronosystem, which refers to the dynamic relationship between levels across time.
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what is adaptation?
Process of building schemata; involves assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what is assimilation?
Interpreting new information in terms of existing schemata.
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what is accommodation?
Modifying schemata to accommodate new information.