Flashcards in Developmental Psychology 4 Deck (32):
What are Thomas' and Chess' three dimensions of temperament?
Easy, slow-to-warm-up, difficult.
What, according to Thomas and Chess, defines an easy temperament?
Typically cheerful, low to moderate reactions to new stimuli and change, regular eating and sleeping schedule.
What, according to Thomas and Chess, defines a slow-to-warm-up temperament?
Often sad or tense, initially withdraw in response to new stimuli, take time to adapt to change, variable eating and sleeping schedule.
What, according to Thomas and Chess, defines a difficult temperament?
Very active and difficult to soothe, react to new stimuli with irritability, have irregular eating and sleeping schedule.
Name Freud's five stages of psychosocial development.
Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital.
Describe the key features of the oral stage.
Birth to 1 year. Exploration of the environment occurs primarily via mouth and lips. Challenge is satisfaction of hunger and desire for stimulation.
Describe consequences in adulthood of fixation in the oral stage.
Habits such as overeating and smoking.
Describe the key features of the anal stage.
1 to 3 years. Pleasure derived from anal and urethral areas of the body. Challenge is management of excretions.
Describe the consequences in adulthood of fixation in the anal stage.
Anal retentiveness (obsession with punctuality and orderliness) or anal expulsiveness (messiness and disorder).
Describe the key features of the phallic stage.
3 to 6 years. Pleasure derived from genitals. Challenge is unconscious desire for opposite-sex parent which is repressed out of fear of punishment by same-sex parent; resolution of conflict through identification with same-sex parent and formation of superego.
Describe the key features of the latency stage.
6 years to puberty. Challenge is consolidating superego by identifying with same-sex children and assimilating social values.
Describe the key features of the genital stage.
Post-puberty. Gratification of sexual drive through extrafamilial love relationships.
Name Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial conflict.
2. autonomy/shame & doubt
5. identity/identity confusion
8. ego integrity/despair
Describe Erikson's trust vs. mistrust first stage of psychosocial conflict.
Birth to 1 year. Confidence gained from predictable and gratifying parental care; mistrust from unpredictable or harsh parental care.
Describe Erikson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt second stage of psychosocial conflict.
1 to 3 years. Exploration and independence from appropriate boundaries managed by parents; hesitancy from over-restrictiveness or shaming.
Describe Erikson's initiative vs. guilt third stage of psychosocial conflict.
3 to 6 years. Sense of ambition and responsibility from parental encouragement of purpose and direction; guilt from unreasonable demands for self-control from parents.
Describe Erikson's industry vs. inferiority fourth stage of psychosocial conflict.
6 years to puberty. Capacities for productivity and cooperation; inferiority from peer group and/or parental undermining of competence.
Describe Erikson's identity vs. identity confusion fifth stage of psychosocial conflict.
Adolescence. Transition to adulthood. Integration of previous stages into identity.
Describe Erikson's intimacy vs. isolation sixth stage of psychosocial conflict.
Young adulthood. Enhancement of identity through intimacy and connectedness with others; failure results in isolation and fear of rejection.
Describe Erikson's generativity vs. stagnation seventh stage of psychosocial conflict.
Middle adulthood. Child rearing, serving as mentor, productive work; failure results in sense of boredom and stagnation.
Describe Erikson's ego integrity vs. despair eighth stage of psychosocial conflict.
Late adulthood. Retrospection of life, conclusion that life was worthwhile; sense of dissatisfaction results in regret and despair.
Describe the two dimensions of parenting supported by research.
Warmth vs. hostility, restrictiveness vs. permissiveness.
Describe Baumrind's four basic parenting styles.
Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved.
How do ethnicity and peer group moderate parenting style in predicting student academic performance?
African-American and Hispanic parents tend to be more authoritative than Asian-American parents, but their (AA/H) children tend to do less well than Asian children. Minority children tend to be more influenced by peers than European-American children and African-American and Hispanic children get little peer support for academic achievement compared to Asian-American children.
What does research indicate about the "storm and stress" characterization of adolescence?
This describes only about 20% of adolescents. The rate of psychological disturbance among adolescents is about the same as for younger children and adults.
How does age of physical maturation effect psychological adjustment?
Early maturing boys have the best outcomes (popularity, good school performance and self-image), while late-maturing boys and early-maturing girls have the worst (emotional instability, academic declines, drug and alcohol use).
What are Marcia's four identity statuses?
Identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement.
What is identity diffusion?
Status prior to undergoing identity crisis and resolution.
What is identity foreclosure?
Strong commitment to an identity suggested by another person (without exploration on one's own).
What is identity moratorium?
Identity crisis and active exploration.
What is identity achievement.
Resolution of an identity crisis.