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Flashcards in I_O Psychology 3 Deck (41):

What developmental theory was Tiedeman and O'Hare's Decision Making Model based on.

Erikson's eight psychosocial crisis resolutions: trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, integrity.


What are the assumptions underlying the scientific management approach to I/O psychology?

Scientific methods can be employed to find the best way of doing a particular job. Dividing jobs into their smallest components and paying workers by piece results in best productivity.


What were Taylor's assumptions in designing his scientific management approach?

Worker motivation affects performance; most workers are motivated exclusively by economic incentives; most workers need constant supervision.


What are the assumptions underlying the human relations approach in I/O psychology?

That worker performance is affected primarily by social factors, including attitudes toward supervisors and coworkers, and informal group norms.


What is the "Hawthorne effect?"

An improvement in worker productivity as a result of increased attention. Named for the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, where the company experimented with environmental conditions; regardless of the changes, productivity improved because of the extra attention workers received by virtue of being experimental subjects.


What are the assumption of the systems approach in I/O psychology?

An organization is an open system receiving input from within and without; changes in one part affect all other parts; the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.


What are the assumptions of a situational/contingency approach in I/O psychology?

Workers have diverse needs; organizations vary and, as a result, no one managerial strategy will work for all organizations at all times. Related to a systems approach.


Compare American and Japanese management philosophies.

American vs. Japanese, respectively: short- vs. long-term employment; individual vs. consensual decision making; individual vs. collective responsibility; rapid vs. slow evaluation and promotion; specialized vs. non-specialized career paths; segmented vs. holistic knowledge of organization.


What is Theory Z?

An attempt to combine the best of American and Japanese management philosophies, advocating consensual decision-making, slow promotion, holistic organization knowledge (from Japanese approach) with individual responsibility (from American approach). It compromises between them with long-term (rather than life-long) employment and a moderately specialized career path.


What is total quality management (TQM)?

Management emphasis on product quality, often involving a flattening of company management, reduced manager-non-manager ratio, increased teamwork and emphasis on fairness, and, for workers, increased skill and task variety and significance, autonomy, and feedback.


Name Lewin, Lipitt, and White's three leadership styles.

Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire. Productivity is highest under autocratic leaders, esp. with routine work. Democratic leaders have the most satisfied, creative, and autonomous workers.


Factor analysis has revealed what two dimensions of leadership styles?

Consideration (person-oriented) and initiating structure (task-oriented, rule-following). These are independent dimensions.


What personality traits are associated with effective leadership?

No clear evidence of a relationship. Effectiveness is moderated by characteristics of supervisees, task type, and work environment.


What are theory X and theory Y leadership styles?

Theory X similar to scientific management, assuming work is inherently aversive, workers lack ambition and need direction, and motivation arises from lowest-level needs. Theory Y similar to human relations, assuming work is natural, workers are self-directed, responsible, and require freedom and autonomy.


What is Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) theory?

A leader's style can be inferred from her/his description of her/his least preferred coworker (LPC): those that describe their LPCs in positive terms tend to be relationship-oriented; those that describe LPCs in negative terms tend to be task- and achievement-oriented.


What are the three factors Fiedler says affect a leader's ability to influence subordinates (a situation's favorableness)?

Leader-subordinate relationships, task structure, and leader's ability to enforce compliance. Low LPC leaders perform best in the extremes of favorableness (high or low) and high LPC leaders are best in moderate favorableness, implying that no leadership style is effective in all situations.


What is House's path-goal leadership theory?

Subordinates are most satisfied and motivated when they perceive their leader is helping them meet their goals by helping them identify means to do so, removing obstacles to goals, and rewarding them for accomplishing their goals.


What are House's four leadership styles?

Instrumental/directive (provides rules and guidelines), supportive (establishes supportive relationships), participative (includes subordinates in decisions), and achievement-oriented (sets and encourages stretch goals and performance).


What are the four leadership styles in Hersey & Blanchard's situational leadership model?

Telling, selling, participating, and delegating. Leadership styles are contingent upon subordinates' styles. A telling style (high task- and low-relationship orientation) is appropriate for subordinates with low ability and acceptance of responsibility; a selling style (high task- and relationship-orientation) for low ability but high responsibility; a participating style (low task- and high relationship-orientation) for high ability but low responsibility; a delegating style (low task- and relationship-orientation) for high ability and responsibility.


What are transformational vs. transactional leaders?

Transformational: change-focused, motivate through ideals and values, encourage self-sacrifice for larger cause. Transactional: stability-focused, motivate through contingent reinforcement.


What are the five leadership styles in Vroom & Yetton's normative (decision-making) model?

Based on the degree to which leaders consult subordinates in decision making: autocratic AI do not consult and make decisions alone; autocratic AII obtain information from subordinates but make decisions alone; consultative CI discuss with individual subordinates but make decisions alone; consultative CII discuss with subordinates as group but make decisions alone; group GII discuss with subordinates as a group and reach group decisions.


What three situational attributes factor into which Vroom & Yetton leadership style one should adopt?

The extent to which the decision to be made will affect the group (its quality); the importance of acceptance by the subordinates; the time required to make the decision.


What is leader-member exchange (LMX) theory?

The relationship between a leader and subordinates varies among an organization's members, with in-group and out-group members. In-group members have more influence on decisions and out-group members relationship with leaders is more formal and obligatory. Effective leaders are aware of out-group members and work to facilitate their entry into the in-group. Members relationship with the leader moves through three phases: stranger, acquaintance, partner.


What are the seven phases of organizational development?

Entry (identification of change needed), contracting (specification of terms), diagnosis (assessment), feedback (presentation of assessment results), planning (development of corrective plan), intervention (implementation of plan), evaluation (assessment of plan progress/outcome).


Name five characteristics of an organizational development intervention.

Systems approach, involvement of all personnel, support from top management, view of changes as long-term planned activity, use of external change agent.


What are quality of work life (QWL) interventions?

Organizational development interventions based on the assumption that organizational effectiveness increases with worker satisfaction.


What is a quality circle?

A QWL intervention involving small voluntary groups of workers from the same department meeting regularly to discuss how work can be improved and make non-binding recommendations. Research support indicates they may be effective, but results are often temporary.


Are organizational surveys effective as organizational development interventions?

Research says mostly yes; they can increase job satisfaction and help solve problems.


What is process consultation as an organizational development intervention?

Observers assess workers' interactions, specifically regarding communication, decision-making, conflict resolution, and individual roles in groups, and make suggestions for improvement.


Name three strategies for overcoming resistance to change in organizational development.

Empirical-rational: assumes people are rational and will respond to relevant information. Normative-reeducative: focuses on changing attitudes, values, and relationships. Power-coercive: uses rewards, punishments, and legitimate authority.


What is a centralized communication network?

All communication passes through one person. Could be wheel-like (central distribution) or chain-like (up and down chain of command). More efficient for simple tasks.


What is a decentralized communication network?

Information flows freely between individuals. Best when tasks are complex and/or cooperation is required.


What is the rational-economic model of decision making?

Examination of all options and selecting the best possible solution. Aka, maximizing.


What is the administrative model of decision making?

Evaluations options as they become available and selecting the first minimally acceptable one. Aka, satisficing.


What are the two factors in Driver's decision-making styles?

Amount of information considered (corresponds to analysis stage); can be maximizing or satsificing. Number of alternatives identified (corresponds to solution formulation stage); can be uni- or multi-focus.


What are Driver's five basic decision-making styles?

Decisive (satisficing and uni-focus), flexible (satisficing and multi-focus), hierarchic (maximizing and uni-focus), integrative (maximizing and multi-focus), and systematic (maximizing and both uni- and multi-focus).


What is Kahneman & Tversky's loss aversion?

Tendency for decisions to be influenced more by potential losses than potential gains. Counters assumption that people's decisions are logical.


What is organizational justice?

Employees' perception of fairness of treatment. Consists of distributive, procedural, and interactional dimensions.


What is distributive justice?

Perception of fairness of outcomes (hiring, assessments, layoffs, etc.).


What is procedural justice?

Perception of fairness of procedure by which outcomes are reached.


What is interactional justice?

Perception of fairness of relationship between an individual and her/his supervisor or a third party. Appears to have two dimensions: informational (data provided) and interpersonal (perception of treatment).