Flashcards in Neuropsychology 1 Deck (39):
Name the two parts of the Peripheral Nervous System.
Somatic Nervous System (voluntary, skeletal muscles) and Autonomic Nervous System (semi-/involuntary, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands).
Name the two subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System.
Sympathetic (arousal, activation of flight/flight) and Parasympathetic (metabolic quiescence, deactivation of flight/flight).
Name the targets of Sympathetic arousal.
Increased heart rate, pupil dilation, conversion of fat and glycogen to glucose (ready energy), increased blood flow to extremities, inhibition of digestion.
Name the targets of Parasympathetic inhibition.
Decreased heart rate, activation of digestion, conversion of glucose to glycogen and fat (energy storage).
Name two common measures of the Autonomic Nervous System.
Electrocardiogram (EKG), constriction of heart muscles; galvanic skin response (GS), changes in electrical conductance of skin.
Name the three functional divisions of the brain.
Primitive core, regulating somatic activities; old brain/limbic system, mediating basic drives and emotions; new brain/cerebrum, higher cognitive, emotional, and motor functions.
Name the three anatomical divisions of the brain.
Hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain. Overlap with functional divisions, but not one-to-one.
Slight or partial paralysis.
Abnormal sensations such as numbness, tingling, burning.
Abnormal sensitivity to sensation.
What is a collateral in the structure of a neuron?
An axonal branch. A neuron has only one axon, but it can have many collaterals on that axon.
How does stimulation intensity affect a neuron's action potential?
Higher intensity produces more action potentials and causes action potentials to occur in more neurons.
What affects the speed of action potential conduction in a neuron?
Larger diameter axons are faster. Myelin sheathing increases speed by 10 to 100 times (saltatory conduction).
Name two processes by which neurotransmitters are removed from a synapse.
Reuptake, in which excess neurotransmitters are taken up by terminal buttons and stored for future use. Enzymatic degradation employs enzymes in and around the synapse to break down the neurotransmitters into inactive metabolites that are then removed as waste.
What is a neuromodulator?
A neurotransmitter that acts to increase or decrease a neuron's sensitivity to other neurotransmitters.
What is a neuromuscular neurotransmitter?
A neurotransmitter that functions at the junction of terminal buttons and muscle fibers.
Name three catecholemine neurotransmitters.
Epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.
Name five neurotransmitters (not the catecholimines).
Acetylcholine, serotonin, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, endorphins.
Describe locations and roles of acetylcholine.
Excitatory in CNS and most neuromuscular locations, mediating memory, sexual behavior, REM sleep, and sleep-wake cycle. In heart and respiratory muscles, it is inhibitory.
Describe the general effects of the catecholemines.
Personality, mood, drive, sleep, memory.
What behaviors and states is serotonin associated with?
Associated with anxiety, mood, eating, sleep, arousal, temperature regulation, aggression, modulation of pain, migraines.
Describe locations and roles of GABA.
Most abundant neurotransmitter in CNS. Inhibitory role.
Describe locations and roles of glutamate.
Excitatory in CNS. Associated with learning, memory, long-term potentiation.
Describe the locations and roles of endorphins.
A class of inhibitory neuromodulators. Bind to opiate receptor sites, reducing thalamic and cortical activity, producing pleasure. Associated with pain relief, sexual behavior, emotions, memory, learning.
Name a drug, a toxin, and a disease that produce their effect through the cholinergic system.
Curare blocks acetylcholine receptors, producing paralysis. Nerve gases and some insecticides have enzymes that break down acetylcholine, producing paralysis of respiratory muscles and, hence, asphyxiation. Myasthenia gravis, a muscle-weakness disease, reduces acetylcholine receptors in muscles.
Name two drugs that produce their effect through the dopaminergic system?
Cocaine blocks dopamine reuptake; nicotine stimulates release of dopamine in mesolimbic neurons.
What are deficits in acetylcholine associated with?
Deficits are associated with voluntary movement impairment. Loss of acetylcholine receptors is associated with Alzheimer's.
What diagnoses are brain imbalances in the catecholemines (specifically norepinephrine and dopamine) associated with?
Norepinephrine and dopamine affect depression (deficit) and schizophrenia (excess).
What movement disorders are imbalances in dopamine associated with?
Movement: Tourette's (excess) and Parkinson's (deficit).
What diagnoses are brain imbalances in serotonin associated with?
Deficits are associated with depression, OCD, PTSD, aggression; excesses with Schizophrenia, Anorexia, Autism.
What diagnoses are deficits in GABA associated with?
Deficits associated with anxiety, Parkinson's, Huntington's Chorea.
What health outcomes are excesses of glutamate associated with?
Seizures, strokes, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's Chorea.
Name the major anatomical structures of the hindbrain.
Medulla oblongata, pons (both part of the brain stem), and cerebellum.
What are the primary functions of the medulla oblongata?
Vital functions: breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, digestion.
What are the primary functions of the pons?
Connects two halves of cerebellum. Role in arousal. Contains raphe nuclei.
What is a function of the pons' raphe nuclei?
Trigger and maintain slow-wave sleep. Serotonergic.
What are the primary functions of the cerebellum?
Maintain balance, coordinate movement, control posture.
Damage to the cerebellum can produce what conditions?
Ataxia (loss of coordinated voluntary movement): slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance, etc.