Flashcards in Ethics 3 Deck (48):
List the 6 standards under section 5, Advertising and Other Public Statements.
1. Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements
2. Statements by Others
3. Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs
4. Media Presentations
6. In-Person Solicitation
What are the 3 parts of standard 5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements?
a) We do not make false, deceptive, or fraudulent public statements regarding our work or that of persons or organizations involved,
b) specifically regarding:
1. our training, experience or competence,
2. our education
3. our credentials
4. our affiliations
5. our services
6. the scientific or clinical bases for or success of our services
7. our fees
8. our publications or findings.
c) We claim credentials only when they are
1) earned from accredited institutions or
2) the basis of state licensure where we practice
What are the 3 parts of standard 5.02 Statements by Others?
a) We retain responsibility for statements made by others whom we engage for that purpose.
b) We do not compensate media personnel for publicity.
c) We clearly identify paid advertisement as such.
What is standard 5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs?
We ensure that our programs' audiences, educational objectives, presenters, and fees are accurately described, to the degree to which we have control over it.
What are the 3 parts of standard 5.04 Media Presentations?
We ensure that statements we make in the media are
1) based on our expertise and in accord with the literature and practice,
2) consistent with the Code, and
3) do not indicate that a professional relationship has been established with the recipient.
What is standard 5.05 Testimonials?
We do not solicit testimonials from those who might be vulnerable to undue influence, e.g., current and former clients. In contrast, a colleague might be solicited for an honest testimonial about a book.
What is standard 5.06 In-Person Solicitation?
We do not solicit business from others; doing so may make them vulnerable to undue influence. This does not preclude
1) implementing collateral contracts in support of already engaged clients/patients or
2) providing disaster or community outreach services.
A psychologist who spends five hours per week teaching at a prestigious university places the title "Adjunct Professor, Prestigious University" on his letterhead. What does standard 5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements say about this practice?
The statement is not false or fraudulent, but it is deceptive, implying to the unwary, a stronger affiliation with the university than exists.
While on internship, an article appears in a local newspaper referring to you as a licensed psychologist. What does standard 5.02 Statements by Others say about this?
It is your responsibility to contact the paper and get them to print a correction.
What does standard 5.02 Statements by Others imply about how to manage others' advertisements for you or your work?
Media ads should be pre-recorded and reviewed by you prior to airing to ensure their adherence to the Code.
Name 7 guidelines for providing public advice or comment as a psychologist.
1. Don't suggest radical life changes or decisions.
2. Refer callers who are selected for on-air participation.
3. Inform callers of the risks associated with discussing their problems on-air.
4. Don't make participants wait too long.
5. Frequently distinguish media presentation from actual psychotherapy.
6. Do not belittle or make a joke of a participant.
7. Do not criticize the competence of other mental health professionals.
List the 7 standards under section 6, Record Keeping and Fees
1. Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records
2. Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work
3. Withholding Records for Nonpayment
4. Fees and Financial Arrangements
5. Barter with Clients/Patients
6. Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sources
7. Referrals and Fees
What is standard 6.01 Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records?
We keep and manage records in order to
1. facilitate future service
2. allow for replication of research
3. meet institutional requirements
4. ensure accuracy of billing and payments
5. ensure compliance with law
What are the 3 parts of standard 6.02 Maintenance, Disseminatin, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work?
a) We maintain confidentiality of our records under our control, regardless of medium.
b) We avoid the inclusion of personal identifiers in any records to which access is granted to anyone not approved by those in the records.
c) We plan in advance to protect the confidentiality of our records after our withdrawal from practice.
What is standard 6.03 Withholding Records for Nonpayment?
We do not withhold requested records solely because payments have not been received from the requester.
What are the 5 parts of standard 6.04 Fees and Financial Arrangements?
a) We make compensation and billing arrangements as early as possible in our professional relationships.
b) Our fee practices are consistent with law.
c) We do not misrepresent our fees.
d) Anticipated limitations to services are discussed with recipients as early as feasible.
e) If we anticipate using a collection agency in the event of nonpayment, we inform the person of that possibility and provide him/her with a chance to make prompt payment.
What is standard 6.05 Barter with Clients/Patients?
- Barter means acceptance of non-monetary remuneration for psychological services.
- We barter only if:
1) it is not clinically contraindicated and,
2) the arrangement is not exploitative.
What is standard 6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Resources?
We take reasonable steps to ensure accuracy of our reports.
What is standard 6.07 Referrals and Fees?
Payments to other psychologists is based only on services provided and not on a referral itself.
What are some alternative approaches to absentee or posthumous record management beyond specifying in one's will or similar document how records will be disposed of or transferred?
- an agreement with a professionally responsible colleague
- instructing a spouse or executor to seek advice on record management
- having a professional organization manage records for a period of time
What are the two key factors to consider in managing records and how long should they be kept?
Legal obligations and patient welfare should be considered when making record management decisions. Seven years is recommended by the IRS for business and financial records, and the same time is recommended as a guideline for patient records, but state regulations may vary.
List 6 guidelines regarding third-party (e.g., insurance companies) payment.
1. You can't bill for services you didn't provide.
2. Most (if not all) insurance companies don't cover missed or canceled sessions, so you can't bill insurance for them, even if you agreed in advance with the client/patient.
3. All information to third party payors must be accurate.
4. You can't bill group sessions at individual rates.
5. You have to clarify the provider status (licensed, non-licensed, etc.)
6. You can't waive a patient's co-payment without informing the third party payor.
List the 7 standards under section 7, Education and Training.
1. Design of Education and Training Programs
2. Descriptions of Education and Training Programs
3. Accuracy in Teaching
4. Student Disclosure of Personal Information
5. Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy
6. Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance
7. Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees
What is standard 7.01 Design of Education and Training Programs?
We take reasonable steps to ensure that our programs provide appropriate knowledge and experiences to meet requirements for their claimed goals.
What is standard 7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs?
We take reasonable steps to ensure that descriptions of program content is current, accurate, and available, and provides information about content, goals, remuneration, and requirements for completion.
What are the 2 parts of standard 7.03 Accuracy in Teaching?
a) We take reasonable steps to ensure syllabi are accurate, contain progress evaluation criteria, and describe the course experience. This may be modified, so long as students are still able to fulfill course requirements.
b) We present information accurately. (Opinions are ethical when presented as such, but information should not be distorted to fit one's opinion.)
What is standard 7.04 Disclosure of Personal Information?
We do not require students or supervisees to disclose personal information regarding abuse, relationships, or psychological treatment, unless
1) the requirement is clearly stated in pre-admission materials or
2) the information is necessary to evaluate students or supervisees who may be at risk in the program.
What are the 2 parts of standard 7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy?
a) Students have an option to seek therapy from practitioners outside of their program, when therapy is required.
b) Faculty who are likely to be responsible for students' evaluations are do not themselves provide therapy.
What are the 2 parts of standard 7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance?
a) Supervisors and teachers establish (and use) timely and specific processes for supervisee and student feedback, which is described to the latter at the commencement of training.
b) Evaluations are made based on actual performance on established, relevant program requirements.
What is standard 7.07 Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees?
We don't have sex with anyone over whom we have or are likely to have evaluative authority.
What are the 15 standards under section 8, Research and Publication?
1. Institutional Approval
2. Informed Consent to Research
3. Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research
4. Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants
5. Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
6. Offering Inducements for Research Participation
7. Deception in Research
9. Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research
10. Reporting Research Results
12. Publication Credit
13. Duplicate Publication of Data
14. Sharing Research Data for Verification
What is standard 8.01 Institutional Approval?
We get IRB approval as appropriate prior to conducting research and follow its protocols.
What are the 2 parts of standard 8.02 Informed Consent to Research?
a) We inform participants and allow them to ask about:
1. research purpose, duration, and procedures
2. right to decline or withdraw
3. consequences of declining/withdrawing
4. risks, adverse effects, etc.
5. anticipated benefits
6. limits of confidentiality
8. contacts for questions
b) We state at the beginning of research on experimental treatments:
1. that the treatment is experimental
2. what the control group gets or doesn't get
3. means of group assignment
4. alternatives if participant withdraws
5. compensations, as appropriate
What is standard 8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research?
We get consent to record prior to recording unless:
1. research is public, naturalistic observation and recording will not cause harm or allow personal identification, or
2. research design includes deception, where consent will be requested in the debriefing.
What are the 2 parts of standard 8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants?
a) We take steps to protect subordinate research participants from adverse consequences of declining or withdrawing.
b) Course-required research participation has equitable alternatives (for those who decline the research).
What is standard 8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research?
IC may be disposed of only:
1. if research would not reasonably harm the participants and involves
a) normal educational practices
b) exclusively anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations or archival research
c) job or organization effectiveness with no risk to job status or confidentiality, or
2. where otherwise permitted by law, federal, or institutional regulations.
What are the 2 parts of standard 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation?
a) We don't offer excessive or inappropriate inducements (likely to coerce participation).
b) We clarify the nature, risks, obligations, and limitations of services offered for inducements.
What are the 3 parts of standard 8.07 Deception in Research?
a) We use deception only if it is justifiable by the study's value and if alternative procedures are not feasible.
b) We don't deceive participants about physical pain or severe emotional distress.
c) We explain deception used as early as is feasible and permit participants to withdraw their data. (However, in revealing details of deception, potential harm should be considered and avoided or minimized; see 8.08b)
What are the 3 parts of standard 8.08 Debriefing?
a) We offer participants proper opportunity for debriefing and reasonably correct misconceptions they may have.
b) We take reasonable steps to reduce risk of harm when information is delayed or withheld.
c) We take reasonable steps to minimize harm that we discover came from our research.
What are the 7 parts of standard 8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research?
a) We acqure, care for, use, and dispose of animals in keeping with all laws, regulations, and professional standards.
b) Experienced psychologists supervise and are responsible for care and use of laboratory animals.
c) We ensure that all supervisees receive appropriate training in methods, care, etc. of all animals being used; responsibilities are consistent with competencies.
d) We make reasonable efforts to minimize discomfort, illness, etc. of animal subjects.
e) Pain, stress, or privation are used only when alternative procedures are unavailable and the goal is justified by the value of the research.
f) We use appropriate anesthesia and antiseptics when performing surgery on animal subjects.
g) When appropriate, we euthanize animal subjects as quickly and painlessly as possible, and in keeping with accepted procedures.
What are the 2 parts of standard 8.10 Reporting Research Results?
a) We do not fabricate data.
b) If we discover significant errors in our data, we take reasonable steps to correct them publicly (correction, retraction, erratum, etc.).
Note: "Fabrication" includes withholding data material to interpretation.
What is standard 8.11 Plagiarism?
We do not present others' work as our own, even with citations.
What are the 3 parts of standard 8.12 Publication Credit?
a) We take responsibility and credit only for work we have performed or substantially contributed to.
b) Publication credits accurately reflect relative contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of other status.
c) Students receive first authorship for multiply-authored work based substantially on their doctoral dissertation. Publication credit is discussed early and often, as appropriate.
What is standard 8.13 Duplicate Publication of Data?
We do not publish as original data those which have been previously published.
What are the 2 parts of standard 8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification?
a) We do not withhold non-proprietary data post-publication for the purposes of verification by competent professionals; we protect participants' confidentiality where applicable.
b) Those requesting data for verification must use it only for the declared purpose. All other uses require prior written agreement.
What is standard 8.15 Reviewers?
Reviewers respect the confidentiality and proprietary rights of those submitting work for review.
What is the APA's policy statement regarding disputes between dissertation supervisors and students over publication credit?
1. Second authorship for the supervisor may be obligatory if s/he
a) designates the primary variables,
b) makes major interpretive contributions, or
c) provides the database.
2. Second authorship might be a courtesy if the supervisor
a) designates the general area of concern,
b) is substantially involved in the design & measurement, or
c) substantially contributes to the write-up.
3. Second authorship is not appropriate if the supervisor provides only encouragement, physical facilities, financial support, critiques, or editorial comments.
4. Agreements should be reviewed as early as feasible and before writing the publication and at time of submission.Disagreements should be resolved by third parties using these guidelines.