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Flashcards in Clinical Psychology 2 Deck (46):

What are the five basic needs that Glasser's Reality Therapy is based on?

1. survival (physical needs)
2. to love and belong (social needs)
3. power (esteem, recognition, competition)
4. freedom (ability to make choices)
5. fun (play, recreation, learning)


What do the terms "success identity" and "failure identity" mean in Glasser's Reality Therapy and how to they help define change?

Whether (success) or not (failure) a person is able to meet her/his basic needs responsibly (in a realistic way without infringing upon the rights of others). Change occurs when a failure identity is replaced by a success identity.


Describe the focus and some of the techniques of Glasser's Reality Therapy.

RT focuses the client on present behavior, being realistic and responsible about getting her/his needs fulfilled. RT uses role playing, humor, confrontation, and plan formulation. RT also uses a questioning framework abbreviated with WDEP:
- exploring the client's Wants and perceptions
- considering what s/he is Doing to get what they want (or the Direction they are going)
- Evaluating whether what s/he is doing is getting her/him closer or further from their goal
- developing and implementing a workable Plan to make positive changes


What is the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program?

A program based on Glasser's Reality Therapy, emphasizing:
- responsibility
- thinking (as opposed to memorizing)
- discipline (as opposed to punishment)
- success-oriented education philosophy


Describe the basic tenets of Berne's Transactional Analysis.

- people move between personality ego states (child, parent, adult)
- we interact with each other and ourselves from within these ego states (transactions)


What are the goals of Berne's Transactional Analysis?

- alter maladaptive life positions and scripts
- integrate three ego states


Name five basic concepts in Berne's Transactional Analysis (other than ego states).

- strokes
- scripts
- life positions
- transaction types
- games


Define the term "scripts" in Berne's Transactional Analysis.

a characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes, developed early in life


Define the term "games" in Berne's Transactional Analysis.

an orderly series of ulterior transactions repeated over time, producing bad feelings for both players


Define the term "life positions" in Berne's Transactional Analysis.

one's basic view of self in relation to others
* I'm okay, you're okay
* I'm not okay, you're okay
* I'm okay, you're not okay
* I'm not okay, you're not okay


What are the transaction types in Berne's Transactional Analysis?

- complementary: functional, adult state interactions
- crossed: response is from an inappropriate ego state
- ulterior: initial communication is from an unclear or multiple ego states ("What time is it?" "Wouldn't you like to know!")


What distinguishes feminist therapy?

- emphasis on social role as a determinant of psychological conflict, especially as regards gender-based oppression of women
- emphasizes the need for social change in support of personal change and responsibility
- views contributing to political change as a therapy goal


What are some of the techniques of Berne's Transactional Analysis?

- identification and analysis of:
* ego states
* transactions
* games
* scripts


What distinguishes non-sexist therapy?

It is like feminist therapy, but non-political, focusing on equalizing power in the client-therapist relationship and validating non-stereotypical gender roles, eschewing traditional methods of assessment and diagnosis.


What are some of the goals of feminist therapy?

- empowerment (self-defining and self-determining behavior)
- identifying and appropriately adopting alternative social roles and options


Define the term "strokes" in Berne's Transactional Analysis.

a positive or negative unit of interpersonal interaction occurring at two levels, social and covert


How does feminist therapy view the client-therapist relationship?

- strives for egalitarianism as much as possible
- acknowledges power difference
- discourages "special bonding"
- encourages client to set her own goals
- allows self-disclosure


Describe Chodorow's feminist approach to object-relations theory.

In traditionally gendered homes, girls and boys experience attachment to their mother differently (girls stay attached, boys separate). This leads them to develop different values, which perpetuate gendered divisions of labor. Thus, cultural change is dependent upon non-gendered child-rearing.


What distinguishes Self-in-Relation theory?

- self is not autonomous, but exists and is understood in relation to others
- development from infancy progresses toward mature interdependence, rather than independence
- mature self has internalized caretaker's empathic attitude


How does Self-in-Relation understand pathology and therapy?

It is an inevitable outcome of disconnection from others. Therapy focuses on reparation of the mother-daughter relationship. Because of the mutuality of relationships, therapists are expected to be affected by their clients, as well as vice versa, although the client's subjective experience remains the focus on the therapeutic relationship.


Define mutuality in the context of Self-in-Relation theory.

Relationships are mutually affecting, reciprocal.


Define schema.

an internal model of the self and the world used to facilitate information processing by linking new information to old


Define cognitive distortions.

systematic errors in reasoning linking dysfunctional schemata with automatic thoughts


List Beck's six cognitive distortions.

- arbitrary inference
- selective abstraction
- overgeneralization
- magnification and minimization
- personalization
- dichotomous thinking


Define the cognitive distortion of arbitrary inference.

drawing a conclusion without supporting evidence or contrary to unsupportive evidence


Define the cognitive distortion of selective abstraction.

focusing on a detail, taking out of context, or disregarding salient information


Define the cognitive distortion of overgeneralization.

drawing a general conclusion based on a single incident


Define the cognitive distortion of magnification and minimization.

perceiving something as far more or far less significant than it is


Define the cognitive distortion of personalization.

inappropriately attributing external events to oneself


Define the cognitive distortion of dichotomous thinking.

black-and-white thinking, splitting, all-or-nothing interpretations


What is the "cognitive triad?"

negative thoughts about the self, the future, the world; typically associated with depression


What cognitive traits are common to anxiety and depression?

- demoralization
- self-absorption
- reduced cognitive capacity for problem solving and task performance


What cognitive traits distinguish anxious from depressed individuals?

- cognitive themes are usually related to anticipated harm or danger
- questions about the uncertainty of the future are common automatic thoughts


What cognitive traits distinguish depressed from anxious individuals?

- hopelessness, low self-esteem, and failure are common cognitive themes
- automatic thoughts tend to be absolute and have negative themes


CBT consists of techniques designed to do five things:

1. monitor negative automatic thoughts
2. recognize the connection between cognition, affect, and behavior
3. examine evidence for and against distorted automatic thoughts
4. replace biased cognition with reality-based ones
5. identify and alter belief schemata that tend to distort experience


List four cognitive techniques.

- eliciting automatic thoughts
- decastophizing
- reattribution
- redefining


List four behavioral techniques

- homework
- activity scheduling
- graded task assignments (steps of increasing difficulty leading to a goal)
- hypothesis testing
- behavioral rehearsal and role-playing
- diversion techniques


Research has shown that CBT may be more effective than other modalities in treating what disorders?

- depression
- panic disorder
- eating disorders


What is the "ABC" theory of Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy?

A: people experience undesirable events
B: people have rational and irrational Beliefs about those events
C: there are Consequences to those beliefs; rational beliefs result in appropriate consequences, and irrational create dysfunctional consequences.


What is the focus on Rational Emotive Therapy in treatment?

RET works to change irrational beliefs into rational ones by increasing awareness of them and identifying the "musts" that result from them.


What are some of the techniques of Rational Emotive Therapy?

- direct confrontation (of irrational beliefs)
- contingency contracting
- in vivo desensitization
- response prevention
- psychoeducation


How does Rational Emotive Therapy differ from CBT?

- CBT defines a dysfunctional thought by it's interference with normal behavior and processing, while RET considers any irrational thought dysfunctional.
- RET is more behavioral than CBT
- CBT relies on hypothesis testing, while RET is more directly and openly challenging


Name four self-control techniques.

- self-monitoring
- stimulus control
- self-reinforcement
- self-punishment


Describe self-monitoring

Tracking/charting behaviors or symptoms as they occur. Can have small effect alone, but usually used with other treatments.


Name three types of stimulus control.

- narrowing: limiting a target behavior, e.g., sleeping only in bed and at night
- cue strengthening: linking a desired behavior to cues, e.g., studying in the library, so that the library elicits studying
- competing responses: eliminating responses that block desirable behaviors or vice versa, e.g., stopping talking while studying

Note: stimulus control techniques are most effective at the beginning of a response chain.


Describe the three steps to Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Training.

- cognitive preparation: learning how faulty cognitions prevent adaptive coping
- skills acquisition
- practice, real and imaginal

Note: SIT has been found to be effective for aggression and impulsive anger.