Flashcards in important definitions Deck (46):
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
the network of factors and events involved in the behavior of human and non-human animals
The principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences
law of effect
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
fixed- interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
learning by observing others (also called social learning).
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.