Flashcards in Lecture 10: Behavioural therapies and applications Deck (29)
***What are the main ways to increase desired
1. Reinforcement (+/-)
5. conditioning, etc
***What are the main ways to decrease
2. punishment (+/-),
5. DRO (differential reinforcement of other behaviour)/omission, etc
***What is the theoretical basis for:
– Systematic desensitisation
- counter-conditioning a fear response to a stimulus with deep relaxation response
- based on two-factor view of avoidance: classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning
some behaviours are reinforcing if they
are highly likely to be performed in a
Some remarkable successes have been
reported with the use of __________ as reinforcers
why is using token reinforces successful?
1. Do not interfere with the behaviour,
2. Not subject to satiety,
3. Can be given immediately,
4. 'Universal reinforcers’ can cater to individual
Lovaas (1967, 1977) used ___________ to
teach young autistic children to interact with
others and speak
_____________ is due to a loss of
stimulus control over sleeping. Normal people
sleep well in their own beds (and not in others)
what are the 2 forms that classical conditioning can interact?
an expectation that a particular event will
occur in a given situation
general states or reflexive reactions in
situations based on the occurrence of some event in
the past in a similar situation
explicit is used for
cognitive behavioural change
What theory is based on two factor theory that is used for avoidance
flooding is based on the two-factor view of avoidance
behaviour, what are they?
1. classical conditioning component
2. instrumental component
- Signal predicts the aversive event
- Signal comes to elicit fear
classical conditioning component
- Initially, response stops the aversive event
- Later, response removes the signal, reducing fear.
what must be done to treat avoidance?
1. The response must be blocked
2. The signal is then presented and the classically
conditioned fear allowed to extinguish
what are the ethical problems of control?
2. institutional care
3. mass marketing and easy credit
One way to avoid problems of feelings of
control or coercion is the ____________
the return of the original problem with
time or a change in circumstances
the development of a new
behaviour derived from the original cause
One popular criticism of behavioural therapies is
they don’t treat the underlying cause of the
what is CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy)?
1. An acknowledgment of the role of internal
factors in behaviour
2. An importance on looking at how people
analyse and evaluate events
3.A look at how emotions and cognitions affect each other
what are the new ways of thinking that CBT teaches?
1. Cognitive restructuring
2. Avoid distortions
3. Teaching skills to manage emoti onal responses to
thoughts, and vice versa.
what are the 3 behaviours that is discussed in behvaioural analysis?
1. increasing behaviour
2. eliminating behaviour
3. maintaining behaviour
what are the ‘Behaviours that alter future behaviour?".
1. Stimulus control (e.g., studying),
2. Distraction (ignoring easy options),
4 Self-reinforcement (reward self for achieving
Counter conditioning a fear response to a stimulus with a deep relaxation response
_________________ is driven by desires