Lecture 6: Avoidance Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6: Avoidance Learning Deck (23):
1

Direct response to aversive outcome is not necessary for the development of avoidance. Emotional state is the critical outcome.

Observational learning

2

Behavior is motivated and maintained by _____________

Fear

3

Rituals are used to ward off unpleasant events. Individuals experiences negative thoughts, which causesanxiety

Superstitious outcome

4

What are some examples of superstitious outcome?

1. Empty pill jars
2. Lucky item of clothing
3. Routines or sayings

5

what are the treatments for avoidance

1. Flooding
2. Systematic desensitization

6

What are the 4 problems with exposure therapy?

1. Change in context
2. Pavlovian conditioning inhibition of fear
3. Safety signals protect warning signals from extinction
4. Relapse

7

What are the two types of response in negative reinforcement

1. Escape
2. Avoidance

8

This is involved when something is not happening

Avoidance

9

When avoidance behaviour (R) leads to reduction of fear (RFT)

Instrumental conditioning

10

What does two-process theory assumes

1. Avoidance behaviour is maintained by classical and instrumental conditioning

2. Classical (fear) conditioning must come first

3. Treats avoidance as escape from a tangible event and disregards the (absent) shock itself.

Basically it assumes that avoidance is motivated and maintained by fear

11

What can develop without warning signal

Avoidance

12

What species-specific defense reactions are easier to condition

Natural fear responses

13

What safety signals from aversive outcomes
What are the 3 safety signals in avoidance?

1. Offset of the warning signal
2. Stimulus associated with escape ( e.g. Doorway)
3. The avoidance response itself

14

What does safety signals in avoidance do

1. Improve acquisition of avoidance
2. Maintain avoidance in the absence of overt fear
3. Protect warning signals from extinction

15

What are the two cognitive theory of avoidance of Seligman & Johnston (1973)

1. A preference for no outcome over outcome
2. An expectancy that response leads to no outcome and no response leads to outcome

16

What are the evidence that aversive outcome is not necessary for the development of avoidance

1. Observational learning in monkeys
2. Development of phobias
3, perceived threat is sufficient

17

What is the critical outcome in observational learning

Emotional state (fear and anxiety)

18

What do you call the rituals or objects that people ward off

Superstitious avoidance

19

What is the hardest thing to extinguish

Vigilant performance of ritual

20

Why is vigilant performance of ritual hard to extinguish

1. Less opportunity to observe the real consequence of the eliciting stimulus (I.e. Stimulus - no aversive outcome)
2. Ritual protects stimulus from extinction

21

What protects a stimulus from extinction

Rituals

22

What is a form of behaviour therapy that is based on the principles of respondent conditioning. is used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders

Flooding

23

What is a behaviour type therapy that is based on the principle of classical conditioning. This removes the fear response of a phobia and substitute a relaxing response to the conditional stimulus using counter conditioning

Systematic desensitization