Flashcards in Lecture 13: Evolution Of Mental Abilities Deck (26)
***What is fitness in an evolutionary sense?
It is a reproductive success (Relative to direct competitors in the population)
***How might evolution produce a SSDR?
Instinctive behaviour drives responses based on the environment
*Describe the process of inheritance for
Through carrying dominant genes.
*Neurological syndrome which affects development of nervous system has a genetic basic
*A SINGLE GENE CAN CODE FOR THIS SYNDROME
*mother carries characteristic
-has children --> mum's gene passed on to 1/2 children
*passed on in AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT way
*spread originally by inbreeding
*genetic disease which can pass on - there is a large chance that carriers of syndrome will have children in which Huntington's expressed at high frequencies
*How does inclusive fitness and reciprocation
solve the evolutionary problem of altruism
and other prosocial instincts?
kin selection/Inclusive: Genes are carried through a relative. your relatives are highly likely to share the same genes as you (r)
- an altruistic act confers a cost to the donor, gives a benefit to the recipient, but if they are related, there is a chance that the genes for helpful behaviour will receive the the benefit (but in another person)
Reciprocation: Get altruism received at a later date.
-both donor and recipient benefit in the long term. you give something that is low value to you to someone who values it highly and vice versa
1. helping someone who doesn't have same genes as you
2. acts can appear altruistic in short term, but if reciprocated later, both donor & recipient benefit in long term
3. giving up something important in expectation of a delayed but greater reward
4. low value to you, but higher value to them
5. exchange of goods and delay in time
note: if you delay a reward, it loses value
*What is the social theory of intelligence in
We process things quicker in a social context (rather than abstract contexts)
social theory of intellect:
Our intellectual abilities & problem solving have evolved from social interactions in small tribes through evolution
*Demands of social context drives evolution of problem solving skills
3. Remembering interpersonal interactions
4. Heirarchical relationships
5. arguing and getting your way
____________ is the study of how an
animal’s behaviour advances its chances of
survival and increases reproductive success.
A gene can take multiple forms (alleles)
that produce different versions of the same
Different alleles can arise spontaneously
Within a population, the mixture of alleles
can change over time via
How can behaviour increase fitness?
4 Parental love and attachment.
SSDR stands for?
Species-specific defense responses
1. All animals have certain problems:
-finding food, water, shelter, mates
2. Study of how an animals behaviour improves its chances of survival and reproduction
3. Genetic basis of behaviour
What is evolutionary fitness?
*Survival of the fittest
1. Competition for limited resources
2. Individuals who are best suited to environment will survive
3. These individuals will pass on characteristics via genes
What is psychobiology?
*Genes will influence behaviour in ways that tend to ensure reproduction
*Traits that can increase fitness:
4 Parental love and attachment.
What is selective breeding of cognitive phenotypes?
Breed rats who made few errors in maze with similar smart rats
Breed rats who made many errors with similar type
*Trying to genetically select for brightness and dullness
*generation after generation, end up with distinct population who were making few errors in maze
Why are honey bees not altruistic?
*have instinct to attack intruders
*they sting, they die
*suicidal instinct can't be beneficial for selection
Those who have this instinct should be bred out rather than those who don't have attack instinct
What are the costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain?
Brain Size selective breeding in guppies
Produces separate populations of guppies w/ big and small brains
Big brain guppies perform better on learning task
However, developing a big brain comes at a cost of energy, food, body size
Females w/ big brain don't invest in reproduction
Explain Mendel's study on inheritance in plants
Certain characteristics passed on
Breed red & white plant together, get pink plant
If you breed pink & pink plant together, 1/2 chance of getting pink, 1/4 chance red, 1/4 white
Cooperation and Fairness in monkeys
*People and some animals are attuned to others cheating
*2 monkeys - one receives cucumber, which it is happy with, until it sees other monkey receive better reward of grape for the same task
you do an altruistic behaviour to someone who is related to you
conditions of reciprocal altruism
1. Must have a reasonable chance of
2. Must be able to delay immediate
3. There is a low cost to donor & high
benefit to recipient,
4. Must be able to remember and punish
Your rela/ves are highly likely to share the
same genes as you (r)
kin selection/inclusive fitness
_____ is a measure
that a gene in
one individual is
if it is reciprocated later, both donor &
recipient benefit ________
in the long term