Flashcards in Lecture 9: Choice And Self-control Deck (15):
*How does the Matching Law predict choice between two concurrent schedules?
Rate of behaviour = Rate of reinforcement
(It's a proportion)
the distribution of behaviour can be predicted by the history of the distribution of reinforcement
*How can differential reinforcement of other
behaviours reduce an unwanted behaviour?
(Since it's a ratio) Reduce behaviour by reducing it's reinforcement or increase reinforcement for another behaviour.
(eg rather than telling kids off [positive punishment] you praise the right behaviour)
*Why do people choose to do activities that produce less valuable but immediate rewards compared to activities that produce more valuable long term rewards?
Risk of losing reward
Expected transaction costs
Concave utility effects on reward
*Why do people dislike too much choice?
1. regret and anticipated regret
2. opportunity cost
3. escalation of expectations
how can we increase self-control?
1. Make the immediate rewards less obvious
2. Distraction from the immediate rewards
3. Delay the immediate reward too
4. Make the longer term rewards or risks more
how are rewards optimized?
1. Rational agents seeking to optimise long-term
what eliminates unwanted behaviour
how do you reduce behaviour
through omission -> negative punishment
how do you reinforce an alternative behaviour
________________ is better to use for a preferred behaviour to take place
the rate in which you discount the value of a future reward
delaying immediate gratification for a bigger long-term gains
forgoing a larger long-term reward for a immediate gratification
$1000 now vs $10000 next week. using discounting curve
Paradox choice 1