Lecture 9: Choice And Self-control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9: Choice And Self-control Deck (15):
1

*How does the Matching Law predict choice between two concurrent schedules?

Rate of behaviour = Rate of reinforcement
(It's a proportion)

OR

the distribution of behaviour can be predicted by the history of the distribution of reinforcement

2

*How can differential reinforcement of other
behaviours reduce an unwanted behaviour?

(Since it's a ratio) Reduce behaviour by reducing it's reinforcement or increase reinforcement for another behaviour.
(eg rather than telling kids off [positive punishment] you praise the right behaviour)

3

*Why do people choose to do activities that produce less valuable but immediate rewards compared to activities that produce more valuable long term rewards?

Risk of losing reward
Expected transaction costs
Concave utility effects on reward

4

*Why do people dislike too much choice?

1. regret and anticipated regret
2. opportunity cost
3. escalation of expectations
4. self-blame

5

how can we increase self-control?

1. Make the immediate rewards less obvious
2. Distraction from the immediate rewards
3. Delay the immediate reward too
4. Make the longer term rewards or risks more
salient

6

how are rewards optimized?

1. Rational agents seeking to optimise long-term
gains
2. self-control
3. impulsivity

7

what eliminates unwanted behaviour

choice

8

how do you reduce behaviour

through omission -> negative punishment

9

how do you reinforce an alternative behaviour

omission schedule

10

________________ is better to use for a preferred behaviour to take place

positive reward

11

the rate in which you discount the value of a future reward

discounting curve

12

delaying immediate gratification for a bigger long-term gains

self-control

13

forgoing a larger long-term reward for a immediate gratification

impulsivity

14

$1000 now vs $10000 next week. using discounting curve

Paradox choice 1

15

freedom of choice leads to happiness

Paradox choice 2