Lecture 22: Auditory Perception 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22: Auditory Perception 1 Deck (34):
1

Why is hearing important?

• Allows us to locate stimuli in the
environment
• Always alert to potential danger
! We cant close our ears!
• Vital part of communication

2

_________ is a repetitive change
in air pressure over time

sound

3

Sound travels through space as ________

waves

4

which is longer sound waves or light waves?

sound waves

5

What is the differences between sound and light waves?

Sound waves are long (0.0172 - 17.2)
Sound can bend (light only straight lines)
Sound produced rather than reflected.

6

Light wavelengths are measured in ___________

nanometers

7

physical vs psychological
frequency is to ______
amplitude is to ______
complexity is to _______

Frequency – Pitch
Amplitude – Loudness
Complexity – Timbre

8

How does timbre differ?

Presence of different levels of harmonics.

9

How is sound captured and signalled?

Outer ear - Gathers sound (funnels it), position of elevation.
Middle - Amplifies signal
Inner - Location, frequency mapping.

10

________ contains
primary
receptors
and is filled
with fluid

cochlea

11

______ are muscles which control the
middle ear bones

tensor tympani

12

_________ protects us from damaging loud sound bursts

middle ear or tensor tympani

13

What is the human frequency range?

20Hz - 20 kHz

14

The __________ of a wave
determines the pitch of the sound we perceive

frequency

15

Frequency is measured in ___________

Hertz (Hz)

16

What is the range that we are most sensitive to (i.e. Human Hearing Threshold Curve )

2000-5000Hz

17

_________ is the
relationship
between
frequency and
pitch

mel scale

18

____________ tells us the
degree of compression (or rarefaction)
of the sound wave (height of the wave).

amplitude or intensity

19

Amplitude is measured in ________

decibels (dBs)

20

_____________ is how we perceive amplitude and is frequency dependent

loudness

21

What does the inverse square law mean?

Energy from the source dissipates with distance.

or

sound attenuation or
decrease of sound intensity from a point
source based on the reciprocal of the
square of the distance

22

Which frequencies dissipate less over distance?

Lower frequencies (sounds from a long way away sound muffled with low frequencies)

23

refers to a decibel scale with a standard
reference pressure (Pr) of about

Sound Pressure Level
(SPL)

24

The ear is sensitive to an enormously
wide range of __________

pressure amplitude

25

___________ is a logarithmic scale
that compresses human range

the decibel scale

26

It is the ratio of a pressure to some
reference pressure

Decibels (dBs)

27

__________ is the lowest
frequency which determines pitch

Fundamental frequency (pitch)

28

________________ multiples of the fundamental frequency

harmonic frequency

29

refers to how we perceive the
tone or quality of a complex sound

timbre

30

all have a different timbre (‘colour’)
because their __________ differ

higher harmonic

31

complex patterns added to the lowest, complex patterns added to the lowest,
or fundamental fundamental, frequency of a sound, , frequency of a sound,
referred to as ___________

spectrum envelope

32

spectrum envelopes enable us to spectrum envelopes enable us to
distinguish

musical instruments

33

Multiples Multiples of fundamental fundamental frequency frequency
give______

music

34

Multiples of unrelated unrelated frequencies give ______

noise