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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (34):
1

What are the two main types of contingencies?

1. Classical conditioning
2. Instrumental conditioning

2

Who introduced classical conditioning? U.S.-UR

Pavlov

3

What are the three partite contingency?

1. Antecedent
2. Behaviour
3. Consequence

4

The immediate outcome of a behavior?

Consequence

5

Stimulus controlling the behavior

Antecedent

6

What is the response being reinforced

Behavior

7

What are the 5 operant conditioning?

1. Positive Rft
2. Negative Rft
3. Reinforcement
4. Escape learning
5. Avoidance learning

8

Presence of a stimulus

Positive Rft

9

Absence of a stimulus

Negative Rft

10

Increases behavior

Reinforcement

11

Removal of stimulus

Escape learning

12

Preventing a stimulus

Avoidance learning

13

Which experimenter found that the subjects has no control over events, but responds to them

Pavlov

14

Which experimenter found that the subject has to respond to change the circumstances

Thorndike/skinner

15

Changes in ________________ and _______________, shifts in attitudes, changed emotional responses

Reflexes and behavior

16

Knowing the cause of behavior allows you to:

1. To change your own behavior
2. To change another's behavior
3. To recognize when someone is trying to change your behavior

17

What causes behavior to change?

Environmental factors

18

What is the discriminative stimulus (Sd)?

Antecedent

19

The operant- the precise aspect of the response that determined reinforcement

Behavior

20

What is the reinforcing stimulus (sr)

Consequence

21

Giving a dog a treat when the dog sits

Positive RFT

22

Spanking a child for cursing

Positive punishment

23

Studying to avoid getting bad grades

Active avoidance

24

Turning off an alarm clock by pressing the snooze button

Escape learning

25

Telling a child to go to his room for cursing

Negative punishment

26

Complex behavior can arise from simple process through a process of

1. Iteration/ repetition
2. Feedback
3. Slight variation in each iteration

27

Why is instrumental learning a big thing

1. The discovery that complex behavior arose from simple process
2. People are not good at verbalising the reasons for their behavior so learning is measured indirectly
3. The study of environmental causes of behavior and emotions allowed for the development of techniques to modulate them

28

What was the first truly effective therapies

Behavior therapies

29

What changed through the manipulation of environmental variables

Utopian ideals of sociocultural

30

What two areas of tea search showed that behaviour was not merely caused by environmental factors?

Also behavioral therapies had limited effectiveness for many psychopathologies - led to the intro cognitive behavioral therapies

1. Animals could predict future events
2. Phylogenetic differences in learning and behaviour

31

What Led to the intro of cognitive begaviour therapies

behavioral therapies had limited effectiveness for many psychopathologie

32

What indicates that the monkey's instrumental behaviour is guided by the expected outcome?

Reward devaluation

33

Two-factor theory is also known as

Belief desire models of behaviour

34

What is teleology

Explaining a current thing by referring to a future use or purpose