Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (34):
What are the two main types of contingencies?
1. Classical conditioning
2. Instrumental conditioning
Who introduced classical conditioning? U.S.-UR
What are the three partite contingency?
The immediate outcome of a behavior?
Stimulus controlling the behavior
What is the response being reinforced
What are the 5 operant conditioning?
1. Positive Rft
2. Negative Rft
4. Escape learning
5. Avoidance learning
Presence of a stimulus
Absence of a stimulus
Removal of stimulus
Preventing a stimulus
Which experimenter found that the subjects has no control over events, but responds to them
Which experimenter found that the subject has to respond to change the circumstances
Changes in ________________ and _______________, shifts in attitudes, changed emotional responses
Reflexes and behavior
Knowing the cause of behavior allows you to:
1. To change your own behavior
2. To change another's behavior
3. To recognize when someone is trying to change your behavior
What causes behavior to change?
What is the discriminative stimulus (Sd)?
The operant- the precise aspect of the response that determined reinforcement
What is the reinforcing stimulus (sr)
Giving a dog a treat when the dog sits
Spanking a child for cursing
Studying to avoid getting bad grades
Turning off an alarm clock by pressing the snooze button
Telling a child to go to his room for cursing
Complex behavior can arise from simple process through a process of
1. Iteration/ repetition
3. Slight variation in each iteration
Why is instrumental learning a big thing
1. The discovery that complex behavior arose from simple process
2. People are not good at verbalising the reasons for their behavior so learning is measured indirectly
3. The study of environmental causes of behavior and emotions allowed for the development of techniques to modulate them
What was the first truly effective therapies
What changed through the manipulation of environmental variables
Utopian ideals of sociocultural
What two areas of tea search showed that behaviour was not merely caused by environmental factors?
Also behavioral therapies had limited effectiveness for many psychopathologies - led to the intro cognitive behavioral therapies
1. Animals could predict future events
2. Phylogenetic differences in learning and behaviour
What Led to the intro of cognitive begaviour therapies
behavioral therapies had limited effectiveness for many psychopathologie
What indicates that the monkey's instrumental behaviour is guided by the expected outcome?
Two-factor theory is also known as
Belief desire models of behaviour