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여가는그들의 깨어 있는 시간을 일하는 시간보다 더 많이 차지하게 될 것입니다.

Leisure would occupy far more of their waking hours than work.
*waking hours 깨어 있는 시간


conjure up [kɑ:ndʒər] 1

It was exactly this prospect that John Maynard Keynes conjured up in a little essay published in 1930 called "Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren."
[VERB] to present to the mind; evoke or imagine


attend to

The world had much more urgent problems to attend to, including getting out of the Great Depression.
*to deal with or take responsibility for something; to give practical help to somebody who needs it


revert to [rɪvɜ:rt] 2

And Keynes himself never explicitly reverted to his vision, though the dream of a workless future was always there in the background of his thinking.
[VERB] [WRITTEN] When someone reverts to a previous topic, they start talking or thinking about it again.


drop [drɒp]

Nevertheless, there are good reasons for returning to the questions Keynes raised, then dropped.
[VERB] If you drop an idea, course of action, or habit, you do not continue with it.


돈을 버는 것은 그자체로 목적이 될 수 없습니다.

Making money cannot be an end in itself.
*be an end in itself 그 자체로 목적이 되다.


Contraction [kəntrækʃən]2

We in the West are once more in the midst of a Great Contraction, the worst since the Great Depression.
[NOUN] When a woman who is about to give birth has contractions, she experiences a very strong, painful tightening of the muscles of her womb.수축


inspection [ɪnspekʃən]2

A great crisis is like an inspection: it exposes the faults of a social system, and it prompts the search for alternatives.
[VERB] If you inspect something, you look at every part of it carefully in order to find out about it or check that it is all right.


vantage point [vɑ:ntɪdʒ pɔɪnt, vænt-] 1

Keynes's essay offers a vantage point from which to consider the future of capitalism.
[NOUN] [oft with poss] If you view a situation from a particular vantage point, you have a clear understanding of it because of the particular period of time you are in.


bring (something) to light

obscure [ɒbskjʊər] 2

unanimous [ju:nænɪməs] 2

The situation has brought to light two defects in the system, usually obscured by the near-unanimous commitment to growth at almost any cost.
*show information, evidence, etc 만천하에 드러나게 하다
[VERB] If one thing obscures another, it prevents it from being seen or heard properly.



repugnant [rɪpʌgnənt] 2

The banking crisis has shown yet again that the present system relies on motives of greed and acquisitiveness, which are morally repugnant.
[ADJ] [disapproval] If you describe a person or an organization as acquisitive, you do not approve of them because you think they are too concerned with getting new possessions.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] If you think that something is horrible and disgusting, you can say that it is repugnant.


latterly [lætərli]1

trickle down

It also divides societies into rich and poor, latterly very rich and very poor, justified by some version of the "trickle down" idea.
[ADV] [WRITTEN] You can use latterly to indicate that a situation or event is the most recent one.
*to spread from rich to poor people through the economic system of a country


offend [əfend] 2

The coexistence of great wealth and great poverty, especially in societies in which there is enough for everyone, offends our sense of justice.
[VERB] If you offend someone, you say or do something rude which upsets or embarrasses them.


palpable [pælpəbəl]1

Second, the crisis has exposed capitalism's palpable economic problems.
[ADJ] You describe something as palpable when it is obvious or intense and easily noticed.


liquidate [lɪkwzɪdeɪt]1

Heavily indebted countries are told that the bond markets will not be satisfied until they have liquidated a large fraction of their national incomes.
[VERB] [BUSINESS] If a company liquidates its assets, its property such as buildings or machinery is sold in order to get money.


approbation [æprəbeɪʃən] 1 3

He thought that with the coming of plenty, this motivational drive would lose its social approbation.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] Approbation is approval of something or agreement to it.


그는 풍요의 시대가 도래하면서, 이런 동기가 되는 욕구가 그것의 사회적 승인을 잃을 것이라 생각했다.

He thought that with the coming of plenty, this motivational drive would lose its social approbation.
*with the coming of plenty: 풍요의 시대가 도래하면서


disciplinary [dɪsɪplɪneri]1

Such questions are seldom asked, because they do not fall neatly into any of the disciplinary boxes that make up modern intellectual life.
[ADJ] Disciplinary bodies or actions are concerned with making sure that people obey rules or regulations and that they are punished if they do not.징계의


unmindful [ʌn|maɪndfʊl] 2

empirical [ɪmpɪrɪkəl] 2

Philosophers construct systems of perfect justice, unmindful of the messiness of empirical reality.
[ADJ] [(usually postpositive, and foll by of)] careless, heedless, or forgetful
[ADJ] Empirical evidence or study relies on practical experience rather than theories.


discipline [dɪsɪplɪn]1

We need to bring together insights from both disciplines
[NOUN] [FORMAL] A discipline is a particular area of study, especially a subject of study in a college or university.


prophecy [prɒfɪsi]1

Let's begin by pondering the reasons for the failure of Keynes's prophecy.
[NOUN] A prophecy is a statement in which someone says they strongly believe that a particular thing will happen.


왜, 그의 성장에 관련한 예언의 놀라운 정확성에도 불구하고, 대부분의 우리들은 거의 100년동안(100년이 지난 지금도) 계속해서 그가 그 미래지향적인 에세이를 썼을때 만큼이나 열심히 일하고 있는 것일까요?

Why, despite the surprising accuracy of his growth forecasts, are most of us, almost 100 years on, still working about as hard as we were when he wrote his futuristic essay?
*almost 100 years on: on은 계속의 의미로, 100년이 지난 지금도의 의미


inflame [ɪnfleɪm] 2

The answer is that a free-market economy both gives employers the power to dictate hours and terms of work and inflames our innate tendency toward competitive, status-driven consumption.
[VERB] [JOURNALISM] If something inflames a situation or inflames people's feelings, it makes people feel even more strongly about something.


wither away

Keynes was well aware of the evils of capitalism but assumed that they would wither away once their work of wealth creation was done.
*to become less or weaker, especially before disappearing completely


entrench [ɪntrentʃ]2

He did not foresee that they might become permanently entrenched, obscuring the very ideal they were initially intended to serve.
[VERB] If something such as power, a custom, or an idea is entrenched, it is firmly established, so that it would be difficult to change it.


케인즈 혼자만이 이런 생각을 한 것은 아니었습니다. 악이라는 모티그 그 자체가 그럼에도 불구하고 유용할지도 모른다는

Keynes was not alone in thinking that motives bad in themselves might nonetheless be useful.
*be not alone in thinking that


in return (for something)

hitherto [hɪðərtu:] 1 3

In the language of myth, Western civilization has made its peace with the Devil, in return for which it has been granted hitherto unimaginable resources of knowledge, power, and pleasure.
*as a response or reaction to something
[ADV] [FORMAL] You use hitherto to indicate that something was true up until the time you are talking about, although it may no longer be the case.그때까지


immortalize [ɪmɔ:rtəlaɪz] 2

This is, of course, the grand theme of the Faust legend, immortalized by Goethe.
[VERB] [WRITTEN] If someone or something is immortalized in a story, film, or work of art, they appear in it, and will be remembered for it.


breed [bri:d]

The irony, however, is that now that we have at last achieved abundance, the habits bred into us by capitalism have left us incapable of enjoying it properly.
[VERB] If you say that something breeds bad feeling or bad behaviour, you mean that it causes bad feeling or bad behaviour to develop.


evade [ɪveɪd]2

cf) invade [ɪnveɪd] 2

Can we evade this fate?
[VERB] If you evade someone or something, you move so that you can avoid meeting them or avoid being touched or hit.
[VERB] To invade a country means to enter it by force with an army.